Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Porsche Exposed

Porsche 1. How does Porsche differ – operating structure, financial results, etc. – from other major European-based auto manufacturers? To begin with Porsche is a privately owned company controlled by the Porsche and Piech family. They hold all the 8. 75 million voting shares while mainly large institutional investors hold the other 8. 75 million non-voting shares. Despite the fact that stock exchange and analysts’ requests more frequent and more detailed financial reporting Porsche is not willing to meet these needs. Another questionable input is the management compensation that only depend on Porsches profitability from year to year and not the share prices. Porsche manufacturing is conducted in German but also in Finland which make them a global brand with a cost base mainly in euro. They want to keep it so despite the fact that 42% of its revenues come from sales in the US since they believe that the heart of the brand comes from its performance in manufacturing and engineering. Porsche is therefore, by far the most exposed company among other European-based auto manufactures to changes in exchange rates. While the other manufacturers increase their amount of natural hedging by conducting more manufacturing in their countries of large sales Porsche increase their put option hedging. According to their 2006 model year they are going to fully hedged all their sales. This is done even though Porsche has the largest US exposure among the manufactures. Their hedging strategy has been criticized for being more lucky than thoughtful. Porsche also differ with their extreme anti-debt attitude. Porsche have a strong competitive position and another aspect that is very specific for Porsche’s products is the exchange rate pass-through. They pass through the changes of exchange rate upon the final consumer. 2. Describe Porsche’s foreign exchange operating (economic) exposure. How has the company been managing this exchange rate exposure? Porsche’s exposure to the US is currently 42 % of it sales and this numbers are believed to increase with increasing sales. The sales’ to the UK market is also relatively large with 11 %. Therefore the largest exposures are towards the dollar and the pound. Porsche is not using any natural hedging even though this type of â€Å"hedging† is increasing among other major European-based manufactures. Porsche use an aggressive put option strategy to hedge against the US dollars and according to their model year of 2006 they are going to be fully hedged against their sales. They will achieve this by a three year rolling portfolio of put option contracts whit prices based on currency forecasts. 3. What methods are theoretically available to Porsche to manage or hedge its currency exposure? Why have these other methods not been used? If Porsche believe that their sales in US will prevail high they could do as the other manufacturers and start producing their cars in the US. If they do so they will match their sales with their costs in a beneficial way and that is how natural hedging is conducted. This procedure is probably quit costly to conduct but on the other hand this might create dollar debt that they could match their sales to as well. There is always a chance that this would affect the manufacturing and engineering skills. Another alternative that were very specific for Porsche’s products is the pass through of changes in exchange rate to the final consumer. Porsches has an approach to non debt but they could in fact use currency swaps to match their underlying exposure. But I don’t really know if Porsche has any debt that they could swap. 4. So, all things considered, what do you think of Porsche’s hedging program and strategy? What do you think they should do? I understand why Porches currency strategy has been widely criticized even though it has done very well. It must be a very expensive strategy to keep up and as the criticism has stated there is a belief that Porsche has been more lucky than skilled in their hedging. But what if they haven’t? I really think they should re-consider their no-debt statement to realize that there might be other valuable and less costly strategies out there. It feels like they just remember that they couldn’t lend money when they needed and not the fact that they lost a lot of money. This aspect could happen again if their predictions’ about the future is wrong. There is also always a risk when hedging all of the exposure but this need’ to be weighted to the win of hedging all of the exposure. Maybe there is a change that they could use a collar, swaps, loans or new manufacturing positions in their hedging. The magic is to find a suitable approach to match the exposure of the sales.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Effect of TV Personalities to the Mass of People Essay

This is considered to provide learners or readers with mass media information needed to help them become knowledgeable individuals in the use of mass media. Every idea is presented as simple as possible suited for each other for better understanding of concepts and guidelines. 1Media is the various means of mass communications considered as a whole, including television, radio, magazine, and newspaper, together with the people involved in their mass of people. Artists or celebrities have a big portion in media, they are the one who have the connection to the mass of people, the television industry has been considered as a very strong influence on society. The largest television stations here in the Philippines are the ABS-CBN and GMA. They provide different formats of viewing such as music, news, animation, children programs, educational, soap operas or telenovelas, fantaseryes, game shows or reality shows and many more; that might help or worsen once lifestyles. 2These programs are monitored by MTRCB (Movie & Television Review & Classification Board). By rating it through G, PG and SPG. Rated G (General Patronage) is for all age and viewers. In Rated PG (Parental Guidance) monitored programs, children need a parents supervision. While in Rated SPG (Strict Parental Guidance) supervised shows, children or minor should be guided strictly since it might contain theme, language, harassment, sexual, horror, or drugs that are not appropriate to their stage of development. The generation nowadays have a lots of TV personalities that known for their extraordinary talents, appeals, and by attainting the peoples expectation in their shows. The most influential personalities in today’s generation are Vice Ganda, Daniel John Padilla, Kathyrn Bernardo, Anne Curtis, Julia Montes, Pokwang, Charice Pempengco, Raymond Gutierrez, Barbie Forteza and Jake Vargas. They are involved in different project and altered act of role, some might act as kontrabida or villain and basagulero or trouble maker that in the eyes of broods they thought that it is accurate nevertheless it is incorrect. Different person has different perspective in what they see and hear. It is their choice to follow it or not, through the custody of their parents I know everyone might choose the right path. 4Since celebrities are regularly seen on television, heard over the radio, and read about in the newspapers, it is not questionable that all their moves are followed by the general public. Being aware of the great regard that people give them, celebrities do their best in order to share a positive influence to the community. There are a lot of celebrities today that share their advocacies openly for the public to follow. For instance, there are plenty of TV stars who put up their own foundations in order to fund pressing problems in the country. In addition to that, there are also a lot of personalities who willingly participate in rescue operations in times of disasters like typhoons, floods, and earthquakes. By being good example to the community, celebrities today are definitely able to show that they help in making the Philippines a better place to live in. Each artist influence or affects the lifestyles of their viewers or fans in different and little ways. Their fans might affect the way they dress, the way they speak, the way they act, or might affect one’s life. Artist could influence in positively or negatively and these are the things that this thesis will going to provide you, piece by piece. This book allows you to experience the boundless power and importance of the fields of artist and its effect to the mass of people. Come then, and let us take a trip to the world of stars, together, let us make ourselves better individualities.

Study skill Essay

Study skill is defined as the different abilities that can be developed in order to improve a learner’s capacity to learn (MONDOFACTO, 2009). Based from the free dictionary (n. d. ), the term study skill is used for general approaches to learning, rather than skills for specific courses of study. There are many theoretical works on the subject, and a vast number of popular books and websites. In the 1950s and 1960s, college instructors in Zthe fields of psychology and the study of education used research, theory, and experience with their own students in writing manuals. Marvin Cohn based the advice for parents in his 1979 book Helping Your Teen-Age Student on his experience as a researcher and head of a university reading clinic that tutored teenagers and young adults. According to the National Commission on Excellence in Education (1984), many students are unsuccessful in school because they lack effective study skills (Mutsotso&Abenga, 2010). College students face various sources of academic stress, including demonstration of an ability to engage in challenging materials under time limitation (AfsanehHassanbeigi, JafarAskari, Mina Nakhjavani, ShimaShirkhoda, KazemBarzegar, Mohammad R. Mozayyan&HossienFallahzadeh, 2011) especially examination (Helen, 2013). To counter this, the commission recommends that study skills be introduced to students very early in the schooling process and continue throughout a student’s educational career (Mutsotso&Abenga, 2010). In a now classic study of study skills, Entwistle (1960) reported that students who voluntarily took a study skills course were more successful academically than similar students who did not voluntarily take the course(Mutsotso&Abenga, 2010). Haynes (1993) reported that improving study skills techniques can enhance academic achievement for students with poor study skills habits (Mutsotso&Abenga, 2010). One such initiative was launched by the Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE)(Mutsotso&Abenga, 2010). This initiative, â€Å"The Dynamics of Effective Study,† was intended to help students succeed in high school by providing them with essential study skills(cited in Louisiana Department of Education, 1987)(Mutsotso&Abenga, 2010). According to documents produced by BESE, the â€Å"Dynamics of Effective Study† course was designed to help students â€Å"learn how to learn† so that they can become effective, well-organized, and self-directed learners (cited in Louisiana Department of Education, 1987)(Mutsotso&Abenga, 2010).

Monday, July 29, 2019

Environmental Scan Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Environmental Scan - Research Paper Example While the internal business environment refers to the factors affecting the business from within, the global environment describes factors in the business external or macro environment (Holman 23). The business macro environment describes factors like competition, clients, industries, market, companies and even clients. In the light of these, business environmental scanning in business can be described as the study and prospective intepretation of the factors influencing business performance. Some of these factors include economic, technological, social and political, including the trends that power businesses, industries and markets in entirety. At Coinstar Company, the process of environmental scanning should include such factors as emerging issues, trends as well as expectations of the various interest parties in the business. Issues, as featured in environmental scanning, often refers to the forerunners of particular business trend breakers. Business environment analysis enables businesses categorize different factors as threats or opportunities, thereby devising strategies that enable them navigate the journey in their environment. The following are examples of elements that can be opportunities or threats to at Coinstar, depedning on how the company appraoches it Social trends: Social trends in business refers to activities that are participated in by the business in the course of its operations. These trends include marketing, supply chain management and cultural aspects. Social trends can be business opportunities depending on how the business reacts to it (Diven and Mark 57). For instance, when a business decides to change its marketing patterns and supply chains to feature various innovations and technological advancements, the development can be an opportunity to the business Technological developments: Technology is a significant factor in modern business, in the face of globalization and increasing

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Personal characteristics that enable leaders to be effective Essay

Personal characteristics that enable leaders to be effective - Essay Example Humanistic approach of management has revolutionized the manner in which role of managers was perceived earlier.Now the emphasis is more on leading the teams instead of managing them. The management theories of leadership that emerged during 20th century also assert that personal attributes of leaders play a vital role in organizational efficiency and effectiveness. For today’s managers, it is important to identify what these personality characteristics are, in order to perform well in the leadership roles. This research is concerned with identifying personal characteristics of the leaders that enable leaders to be effective in their given roles through analysing literature available on the subject matter along with quantitative findings of a survey. Research Question What are the personal characteristics that enable leaders to be effective? Literature Review There are many leadership styles that have emerged over the period of time which include autocratic, transformative, tr ansactional, bureaucratic, charismatic, participative, Laissez-faire, task-oriented, servant and relationship oriented leadership styles (Kim and Yukl, 1995). Analysing these theories helps in understanding that there is no one ideal leadership style that can be adopted by today’s managers in perform effectively. However, there are various theories that explain that personal attributes and characteristics of the leaders have a direct impact on the motivation and performance levels of their respective teams and organizations (McCrae and Costa, 1995). Some of these theories include trait, contingency, situational and behavioural theories. Trait theories are a combination of theories presented by Gordon Allport and Odbert (1936), Raymond Cattell’s sixteen personality factor, Eyesenck’s three dimension of personality and five factor theory. A cumulative approach presented by these theories explains that the leaders possess certain personal characteristics that make them more suitable for a leadership role. According to trait theories, a leader is expected to be open to new experiences, conscientious, extravert, agreeable, emotionally stable with lack of psychoticism. Considering the impact of external factors, contingency theories were proposed (Fiedler, 1986). According to this set of theories, a leader is expected to be task and relationship oriented. The contingency theories themselves consist of path-goal theory, normative decision making and situational leadership theory (Fielder, 1964; House, 1996). All these theories recognize the notion that behaviour and skills inventory of the follower has a direct impact on the effectiveness of the leader. Therefore, a leader is expected to have capability of examining the needs of the follower and have reasonable flexibility to alter their leadership style accordingly. According to Hersey and Blanchard (1969), there are four leadership styles that can be used by the leader by combining directive an d supportive behavioural approach. These leadership styles include telling (high directive, low support), selling (high directive, high supporting), participating (low directive, high supportive), and delegating (low directive, low supportive). On the other hand, path goal theory claims that it is the nature of task and follower that should be considered by a leader while identifying a suitable behaviour according to requirement of the circumstances. These leadership styles include supportive (relations oriented), directive (task oriented), achievement oriented, and participative leader behavior (House, 1996). Another important theory that can be helpful in indentifying the effective leadership traits is transformational theory

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Training paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Training paper - Essay Example lags behind many Asian countries. Why has the U.S. been able to maintain a competitive advantage as a global leader in science and technology? How can training and development and organizations’ business strategies contribute to maintaining a competitive advantage in science and technology in the future? The U.S. has been able to maintain its competitive advantage as a global leader in science and technology because of the huge budget awarded by the government to fund basic research and education in all fields of science and engineering including those conducted in American colleges and universities (National Science Board , par 3). Training and development and organization’s business strategies can contribute to maintaining a competitive advantage in science and technology in the future by allocating a portion of their earnings to funding research and development. The management of organizations should be supportive of â€Å"ongoing learning and application of trained skills† (Strategic training 7). Companies must also encourage their employees to pursue further studies in their field or attend seminars and conferences to update themselves of the latest trends in the industry. It would also help if the organization can hire consultants who are experts in their field who can train their employees. Research has shown that tuition reimbursement programs have a positive effect on employee turnover. A study by Pattie, Benson and Baruch showed that tuition reimbursement reduces the turnover intention of employees (2006). However, they also mentioned that if the degree that the employee is pursuing is not related to his current job position, then the likelihood that the employee will leave the company is high. This finding is in agreement with Becker’s Human Capital Theory

Friday, July 26, 2019

Module 8 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Module 8 - Research Paper Example fuel consumption, this behaviour is different from what is observed in other countries, like the United States, where cost saving and practicality surpass brand names. This information is essential in determining the brand of cars the will make the greatest sales in china. This attraction to brand names goes hand in hand with how the consumer’s view the manufacturers’ image. Another factor in the determination of the brand is the opinion of the user’s friends. This plays a significant role in the choice of car that they will make. The use of the internet is also growing rapidly among the population, with this comes the growth of e-commerce. Monitoring the users’ preferences on products could also provide good information in determining the marketing strategy to improve on sales (Hague & Peter, 2002). The selection of field workers would comprise of a group of a certain age group and preferably from different cultures (Martin and Tamara, 2005). The training of field workers would involve, giving them guidelines to what questions to ask the consumers, the use of questionnaires to gather data and analysis of this data. The training would also show the fieldworkers how to use the analysed data to generate and compile reports about the research. The supervision would involve the use of guidelines is followed strictly, and the fieldworkers use questionnaires effectively. In the analysis, of the overall customer satisfaction, the frequency distribution indicated that the bigger percentage was satisfied with their dell computers; this came with 95.4 of the percentage interviewed. In the following question, of referring dell to a friend, 81.7% of the interviewees agreed that they would recommend it to a friend or relative. The next question was asking the interviewees the probability of making a dell purchase if they were buying a computer. The frequency was distributed towards the positive with a large percentage of 96.2 saying that they would make the choice

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Personal Philosophy of Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Personal Philosophy of Education - Essay Example While the worldviews of monotheists and polytheists are also substantially different from each other, yet they are similar at least to the extent that both believe in the existence of an other world that is beyond the reach and sight of the human beings for a certain time. Religion happens to be the main source of guidance and influence in terms of worldview because it provides the most radical and sensible explanation of what life is all about. Metaphysics  Since I believe in God, I believe that whatever I do in this world will have an impact on what I get in the world hereafter. My future in the world hereafter depends upon my performance in this world; the extent to which I remain noble, just, and fair will depict whether I deserve reward or punishment as a result of my deeds in the world hereafter. The concept of the impact of the deeds performed in this world upon the life hereafter motivates me to be good to others and sacrifice many pleasures in this world. The profession of teaching in this perspective is a very noble profession in that it provides me with the opportunity to spread knowledge and light in the society, to empower the society by empowering the students and particularly the young generation from the standpoint of knowledge as well as morally. This is a just and respectable way of earning money because an individual gets to contribute positively to the society in compensation. My worldview implies that I do my duty with uttermost honesty and sincerity.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Government 2 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Government 2 - Assignment Example They are called standing panels for they handle specific subjects e.g. Agriculture or Armed Services. Woodrow Wilson was right since when the committees of Congress are on, all members are involved in giving full attention to a specific issue and this carries the highest chance of giving better result. The majority party manages to control all the committees of the house by having more numbers in the house and in the committees. The party does so as to ensure that the party fulfils the goals it had for the administration. The policies that are practice by the United States include: treaties and alliances, the United Nations, nuclear weapons testing international trade, the defense budget and also foreign economic and military aid. The right of legation has always been respected as diplomats act as the proxies of their countries and respecting and ensuring their welfare maintains the important relations that exist between nations. This country will never be fully protected from terrorism as America hoses most of these terrorists who have infiltrated the country. However, if more vigilance and surveillance is done, terrorists might be kept at

Sustainability and waste management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Sustainability and waste management - Case Study Example During the examination, Env Consultant took note of all the waste disposal facilities at the store. These consisted of Waste Bins kept at various locations for emptying the general wastes of the Store. (Env Consultant, 2005, p.7) Along with the site assessment, Env Consultant also carried out a survey of the existing waste management practices at the Acme Facility. The Central Store had a number of General Waste Bins kept in various locations, where the employees could throw their waste products. In addition to the bins, there were cardboard bales situated in certain places of the Store which could also be used for the disposal of solid wastes. The Waste Bins and the Bales were emptied at regular intervals to ensure that the solid wastes did not accumulate in the Acme Store site. Therefore, Acme had a fairly well regulated system of solid management on its store location. (Env Consultant, 2005, p.7). Modern organizations are engaged in a number of complex business processes. Usually corporations employ several inputs like capital, raw materials, human resources etc. to generate products and services which can be sold in the market to earn revenue. The production of goods and services are accomplished through complicated processes which generate waste materials in addition to the desired products. These waste materials need to be managed and disposed in a proper manner so that they do not create a hazard for the surrounding environment. Most of the countries have administered strict laws regarding the appropriate disposal of waste products and corporations are expected to abide by these laws. This is where the importance of conducting Waste Assessment Programs in Organizations can be considered. Corporations themselves engage different environmental consultancies to assess the former’s existing waste management and disposal practices. Such assessment programs are carried o ut for mainly serving two purposes. From the Waste Management Report, firms can

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Schuman Plan Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 11000 words

Schuman Plan - Coursework Example In fact she had been already actively engaged in NATO along with the U.S.A. Looking at the success of the ECSC however , Britain was tempted to canvass for membership but her attempt was twice scuttled by Charles de Gaulle who opined that Britain had no real interest in joining the ECSC but was trying to enter as the Trojan horse of the U.S.A. which in a way was obvious since the U.S.A. had been advising her to enter the ECSC and try to change its policies on a broader perspective in tandem with NATO. Thus it took almost 22 years for her to make an entry into the community which by then had become EEC from ECSC, only after the exit of Charles de Gaulle from the French Government. The other five states had been longing for Britain's entry and hence the passage was smooth for Britain though France under the premiership of Pompidou allowed her entry only on firm commitments with respect to the EEC budget contributions and on community's Common Agricultural Policy. The conclusion is ther efore that Britain's entry into EEC was politically motivated rather than on economic motives. The unification of Europe was felt ... Thus it took almost 22 years for her to make an entry into the community which by then had become EEC from ECSC, only after the exit of Charles de Gaulle from the French Government. The other five states had been longing for Britain's entry and hence the passage was smooth for Britain though France under the premiership of Pompidou allowed her entry only on firm commitments with respect to the EEC budget contributions and on community's Common Agricultural Policy. The conclusion is therefore that Britain's entry into EEC was politically motivated rather than on economic motives. Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background The unification of Europe was felt to be the only way to avoid war among nations. France and Germany were sworn enemy nations during world wars I & II. The cessation of hostilities after the end of World War saw many a world leader advocating cooperation between nations in Europe. Robert Schuman, the Foreign Minister of France startled the world by his announcement on May 9, 1950 that Coal and Steel Industry of European nations would have common platform to conduct uniform trade in the said industries what famously came to be known as Schuman Plan. In spite of the apparent advantages of this kind of arrangement, Britain opted out of joining it. While Britain had its own reasons, her rejection of the Schuman plan was not taken lightly by France because of which though Britain quickly realised its importance, it took almost 23 years for it to manage to join the EEC after its formation. 1.2 Aims and Objectives With the above background, aims and objective is to go into the aspects of Britain's hesitation to join the EC initially and

Monday, July 22, 2019

Failure Of Materials Essay Example for Free

Failure Of Materials Essay Failure of materials is an analysis in engineering world, to approach and determining about how and why a materials has failed, like iron bar, why it can crocked or porous. Some general causes of failure are structural leading, wear corrosion and latent defects. Failure of materials must be known by an engineer, safety is the first word when engineer working building structure. They can not take random about materials that is used. They must know strength, flexibility, and endure of materials. For adding, with developing and updating software or research that had be done by company, we’ll more easy to know the characteristic of materials that we use. TYPICAL OF FAILURE OF MATERIALS Fatigue Failures Metal fatigue is caused by repeated cycling of the load below its static yield strength. It is a progressive localized damage due to fluctuating stresses and strains on the material. Metal fatigue cracks initiate and propagate in regions where the strain is most severe. The process of fatigue consists of three stages Initial crack initiation, Progressive crack growth across the part, and Final sudden fracture of the remaining cross section. Corrosion Failures Corrosion is chemically induced damage to a material that results in deterioration of the material and its properties. It is most coming from environment. Corrosion is normal, it is can not be removed, but can be minimized with several strategy like proper choice of material, design, coatings, and occasionally by changing the environment. Various types of metallic and nonmetallic coatings are regularly used to protect metal parts from corrosion. If corrosion can be minimized, materials be able to use and more advantage. Ductile and Brittle Metal Failures Ductile metals experience observable plastic deformation prior to fracture. Brittle metals experience little or no plastic deformation prior to fracture. At times metals behave in a transitional manner partially ductile/brittle. Ductile fracture is characterized by tearing of metal and significant plastic deformation. The ductile fracture may have a gray, fibrous appearance. Ductile fractures are associated with overload of the structure or large discontinuities. High Temperature Failures In physics theory, when a materials is being warm, they will expand than original size. We know about boilers, gas turbine engines, and ovens are some of the systems that have components that experience creep.   An understanding of high temperature materials behavior is beneficial Failures involving creep are usually easy to identify due to the deformation that occurs. Failures may appear ductile or brittle. While creep testing is done at constant temperature and constant load actual components may experience damage at various temperatures and loading conditions. in evaluating failures in these types of systems. High temperature progressive deformation of a material at constant stress is called creep. High temperature is a relative term that is dependent on the materials being evaluated. Liquid Metal   and Hydrogen embitterment Failures   Liquid metal embitterment is the decrease in ductility of a metal caused by contact with liquid metal. The decrease in ductility can result in catastrophic brittle failure of a normally ductile material. Very small amounts of liquid metal are sufficient to result in embitterment. The liquid metal can not only reduce the ductility but significantly reduce tensile strength. Liquid metal embitterment is an insidious type of failure as it can occur at loads below yield stress. Thus, catastrophic failure can occur without significant deformation or obvious deterioration of the component. Hydrogen embitterment failures are frequently unexpected and sometimes catastrophic. An externally applied load is not required as the tensile stresses may be due to residual stresses in the material. The threshold stresses to cause cracking are commonly below the yield stress of the material. Very small amounts of hydrogen can cause hydrogen embitterment in high strength steels. Common causes of hydrogen embitterment are pickling, electroplating and welding, however hydrogen embitterment is not limited to these processes. There are causes of materials failure, but not disease that not have medicine. Every materials that we use have a protection, protection come from our knowledge about characteristic of materials as chemical composition, using guide or calculation and appointment the materials for our structure. Addition, many factory,   metal – producing majority, also publish list of their product that have content about characteristic ( strength, elasticity, endure and treatment). Bibliography Omens, J. H., MacKenna, D. A., and McCulloch, A. D. Measurement of Strain and Analysis of Stress in Resting Rat Left Ventricular Myocardium.   J. Biomech Press,1993. TCR Engineering Services Technical Team. White Paper: Investigating Material and Component Failure.   TCR Engineering Services Pvt. Ltd. India, 2004. Haut Donahue, T. L., Gregersen, C., Hull, M. L., and Howell, S. M. Comparison of Viscoelastic, Structural, and Material Properties. ASME, 1994.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Culture Led Regeneration Focuses On Tourism Essay

Culture Led Regeneration Focuses On Tourism Essay Introduction The aim of this chapter is to provide a framework for the basis of this study, discussing the key matters and approaches in culture-led regeneration whilst examining its functionality within a wider context. It is essential to discuss flagship developments, the public realm, urban design principles and planning policy as part of the place making process. Images of the built environment used within place promotion strategies often add value by increasing consumption within a city. The following attempts to synthesise literatures from the fields of culture, regeneration, urban design, quality of place, place image and the public realm thus providing a coherent framework for later analysis. It is these overarching concepts which remain interlinked in creating better places where people want to live work and subsequently invest. Part One: Regeneration Culture-led Regeneration The term culture-led regeneration has become a part of the planning and development vocabulary and has been seen as being of increasing importance from the beginning of the 1990s, since which arts and culture have come to be seen as a key resource for urban regeneration (Griffiths et al, 2003: 154) with both increased focus and funding opportunities. The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) commissioned a report entitled The Contribution of Culture to Regeneration in the UK which defined regeneration as breathing new life and vitality into an ailing community, industry and areas bringing sustainable, long-terms improvements to local quality of life (2004:4). Culture-led regeneration focuses on using culture and cultural activity as a catalyst and engine for regeneration activity. Within the scope of this study such cultural activity will focus on the quality and design of both buildings and the reclamations of open space including their impact and use. Often these activities are used within place rebranding strategies (Evans and Shaw 2004). Specifically this form of regeneration can be considered through many types of expression including architecture, heritage buildings, festivals, events and the performing arts (Smith, 2006). There are numerous approaches towards achieving culture-led regeneration including production and consumption based strategies (Bianchini, 1993), as illustrated in Figure X. Culture-led regeneration has been used extensively within Europe (Gomez, 1988; Keating and De Frantz, 2004; Miles, 2005) from the beginning of the 1990s as a strategy for regenerating cities that have suffered from social and economic decline through de-industrialisation. Whilst such strategies have been successful throughout Europe, uncertainly remains regarding their long-term benefits (Kavaratzis and Ashworth, 2006). Various studies have been conducted into the effects and impacts of culture on regeneration as outlined in Table X within the context of this study. Culture-led regeneration initiatives have been implemented aimed towards adopting a new place image (Doucet, 2007). The shift towards a globalised economy has resulted in increased competitiveness, recognising that cities must complete of a global scale to attract inward investment. Following deindustrialisation civic institutions have adopted culture-led regeneration initiatives as a tool which offers distinctive wider e conomic benefit by not only stimulating economic growth however aiming towards addressing negative market externalities and social problems (Jones and Evans, 2008). Keating and De Frantz (2004:190) summarise In a crowded international market, it can mark the city as distinct, giving it a brand image. This can indirectly promote its economic competitiveness by increasing its position in the quality-life indexes of international investment ranking. It may also have a psychological effect within the city, building self-confidence and civic pride among the population and even boosting optimism among investors. The role of art and culture is strong within economic development and place-marketing strategies as the wider cultural offer of a city formulates a key component of re-imaging and the creation of distinctive places. This often results in extensive urban development based upon consumption with individuals being attracted by the synergy formed by cultural facilities and surrounding mixed-use development (Snedcof, 1985). Figure X Table X Impacts of Culture on Regeneration Physical Economic Cultural Enhanced identity and place image Inward investment Increased cultural understanding Aesthetic and environmental improvements through architecture, public art and public realm Tourism and increased visitor spending Promoting participation within the arts Increased design quality Increased footfall Enhanced creativity and vision Increased use of public open space Increased property values Enhanced cultural well-being Reuse of redundant buildings/ increased occupancy of vacant land Employer retention Sustainable development (Adapted from Evans and Shaw, 2004; Landry et al, 1993) A case study on the Newcastle Gateshead found that there were social and community benefits of culture-led regeneration including increased numbers of local residents attending cultural institutions and an increased number of residents feeling that the arts had played a valuable role in their lives. Furthermore culture-led regeneration within the area has aided in restoring local individuals identities in addition to improving the fabric and culture within the city. Bailey et al (2004), argue that culture-led regeneration provides a framework enabling local people can [to] re-establish ownership of their own sense of place and space. Thus, culture is a critical aspect of mediating and articulating community need (Evans, 2005: 959), as can be seen that one of the potential effects of culture-led regeneration is positive social impact in addition to economic stabilisation (see Figure X for examples). Major events are seen as a particularly effective catalyst for city regeneration processes because they are able to merge tourism strategies with urban planning and can boost the confidence and pride of the local community (Garcia, 2004: 104) The arts are a catalyst for regeneration, a magnet for tourism and business, enhance the visual quality of a citys environment and provide a focus for community and individual development (Miles, 2005: 896) Figure X examples of social impacts in culture-led regeneration Flagship Development Phenomenon Over past decades the role of the government has essentially changed from functioning as city managers providing frontline public services, to policies focusing on globalisation (Doucet, 2007). Accordingly transforming into more diversified economies adopting entrepreneurial practices as a result of ideological shifts within government policies promoting growth and development. In order to accumulate investment and create job opportunities within this ever competitive economy, there has been an increased focus and awareness of consumption factors, such as quality of life, amenities, the built environment, cultural and social facts (Healy et al, 1992). Flagship developments are often used to produce euphoria, a sense of civic pride and success amongst the local population. Flagship developments are considered a means for economic growth and further catalytic effects such as bringing derelict space back into an economic use. Flagship developments are often launched alongside rebranding or marketing strategies with the aim of changing place image towards a dynamic and creative vision, thus attracting individuals and increasing potential footfall. Flagship developments are often situated in high-profile locations such as central business districts (Healy et al 1992). The Bilbao region of northern Spain is often cited as a successful example of a flagship development and is known as the Guggenheim Effect having created many ripple effects across the region. Critiques of Flagship Developments Doucet (2007) notes the foremost criticism is that of conflicting visions of the city from those of the policy makers and promoters to those of the local population. Thus the question arises as to who are flagships designed for, the residents or outsiders? Often flagships developments follow themes and patterns duplicated from previously successful projects which lead to a cookie-cutter effect (Doucet, 2007). Many flagship developments have become franchised and replicated in both appearance and form throughout the world, which subsequently affects their impact. For example it is evident that many flagship museums are becoming franchised; diminishing originality and their unique selling positions (Harvey, 1989). Impact Measurement The term impact is used in relation to the contribution or role or importance of culture-led regeneration. Table X below identified the different environmental and economic impact measurements and their associated tests (DCMS 2004); Table X: Impact Measurement Environmental Land values and occupancy (versus vacant premises/voids), design quality, environmental/quality of life. Tests Quality of Life (ODPMs local quality of life indicators), Design Quality Indicators (DQI CABE/CIC), Re-use of brownfield land Economic Multipliers (jobs, income/expenditure direct, indirect, induced), cost benefit analysis, contingent valuation (i.e. willingness to pay for free activities such as parks, museums, libraries), inward investment and leverage, distributive effects Tests Employment/unemployment rates, income/spending and wealth in an area, and distribution by social group and location, employer location, public-private leverage, footfall. Place Marketing Image profile strategies may assist in tackling issues around depravation and unemployment in addition to indirectly increasing its economic position reflected in the quality of life, the creation of a distinctive sense of place and psychological effects such as implementing civic pride and a shift of perceptions. Generically through UR the rebranding of a place follows through the design and construction of the built environment. Additionally the use of high profile projects in conjunction with tourism and cultural policies promotes a positive place image in order to adapt the status of the city, its local economy and attract inward business investment as suggested by Stevenson (2003). There seems to be a growing importance in the role of economic development and the adoption of place marketing and re-imaging will assist in distinguishing a place from its competing locations. Bramwell and Rawding (1996) discuss the repositioning of a place within a better market sector with the new brand communicating that alternative service range offers are available to investors, businesses and individuals. The phrase renaissance defines a new approach to regeneration based on the quality of place, an understanding that the design and delivery of high-quality public spaces and the built environment will raise aspirations and contribute to a higher and more sustainable level of economic wellbeing. The function of the programme is to facilitate the renaissance of underperforming places and maximise its strengths. The aim is to help places develop and prosper, both in physical and economic terms. Part Two: Public Realm A Case for Public Realm and Place Quality The type of investment that comprises public realm is varied and often specific to a particular location. Within a city centre context the range of interventions can cover mixed use developments with a focus on squares, waterside development combined with good urban design features which include improving connectivity and supporting green space. The approaches adopted can be led by the type of commercial use be it retail, cultural or indeed office development led. The definition of quality of place can be broadly described as the range of factors which contribute to the attractiveness and functionality of a locality as a place to live, work, invest or visit. Investment that supports the development of high quality places is generally recognised as helping to improve economic performance. This particular view has influenced the place agenda over the past decade and this is now clearly evident in public policy. Good examples of this shift in policy include the CLGs Total Place concept and the approach being adopted by the HCA to area based development. CABE have long argued the importance of quality places in defining successful places. Economic Benefits Various research studies undertaken over the last 10 years have sought to examine the impact of design quality on local areas and businesses. CABE (2002) draws together the findings of key research from the UK and abroad showing how investment in good design generates economic and social value. Collectively the studies provide evidence of the value of design in the areas of civic pride and cultural activity, business, housing, educational environments, crime prevention and social wellbeing. CABE (2004) highlighted the importance of public realm and public spaces to the competitiveness of an area. Whitehead et al (2006) sought to follow up on the earlier qualitative findings (such as the work by CABE) to quantify measures of change in business performance brought about by urban quality improvements (for example, studies that looked at willingness to pay, impact on property values and rents, turnover, footfall or other quantifiable forms of impact). Whitehead et al (2006) examined whether improvements in the urban environment (which might be achieved through pedestrianisation or public realm improvements) affect business location decisions. The central question posed was to establish the value to office or retail businesses of locating in enhanced urban spaces, reviewing more than 700 different studies. Table X below summarises the quantifiable evidence found by the Panel. It indicates the range and mean value for key commercial metrics such as footfall and turnover and retail and office rental premiums observed from the investment made. Table X (Whitehead et al 2006) Activity Type of improvement Number of cases Headline values (Mean) Retail footfall Pedestrianisation 10 20% 40% (32.3%) Retail turnover 22 10% 25% (17.0%) Retail rents 420 10% 30% (21.7%) Office rents Waterfront improvement/ other water feature 10 15% 35% (24.2%) Commercial property values can also benefit from the presence of quality public realm and environs. In principle, higher landscape quality will help to make sites and premises easier to sell or let and help retain occupants, with some studies suggesting that some occupants value landscape quality more highly than others to the extent that they are prepared to pay a higher than average rent for premises located in an area of high landscape quality (South Yorkshire Forest et al, 2008). Land and property values are a useful proxy measure for the relative prosperity and attractiveness of a community, neighbourhood or place. Property values reflect a basket of factors, including for example transport links, proximity to employment and local services, as well as environmental quality. The public realm theory of change model brings together the evidence base in terms of activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts in mapping the economic benefits of public realm investment (EMDA/ECOTEC 2007). Figure X provides a schematic of the public realm theory of change model. In the centre of the framework are the reasons why public realm investment brings about economic benefits summarised around six economic benefit streams: 1. Attracting business; 2. Increasing land / property values 3. Attracting visitors; 4. Increasing tourism; 5. Improving productivity; and 6. Enhancing image. The theory is that the quality of the location is enhanced by public realm and this changes the behaviours of investors, business and visitors, leading to increased positive outcomes including increased business activity, visitor expenditure, secondary business activity, productivity and an overall enhanced image for the area. Ultimately this improves the overall investment climate for a location and employment opportunities, impacting on high level outcomes including the sustainability of communities and economic competitiveness. Figure X: Public Realm Theory of Change Model. Case Study Evidence In evaluating the impact of public realm there has been a heavy emphasis on using area based case studies. Such case studies have tended to focus on qualitative assessments, although increasingly they have used survey approaches to help assess the relative contribution of public realm investment. Table X summarises a number of case studies. The case studies illustrate that public realm is reported by stakeholders as having an economic impact. Businesses across a range of studies report that public realm investment improves the performance of existing enterprises and influences new investment decisions. This is due to the way in which public realm impacts on increasing the attractiveness of an area, increasing footfall leading to increased consumers expenditure or improves the image of an area leading to new employment generation activity. The public realm is a secondary factor in the location decision making of inward investors in the East Midlands (EMDA/ECOTEC 2007). This was viewed as being due to the nature of inward investment decisions and the multiple factors that influence location. Moreover, it has been noted that there is little robust evidence from property market stakeholders to demonstrate the economic and regeneration impacts of investment in the public realm, but anecdotal evidence point to a positive relationship. A more general point relates to the context for public realm investment being made. The case study evidence suggests that whilst public realm projects can be successful in their own right, they need to be part of a wider regeneration programme to contribute towards the economic revival and sustainability of an area. What the case studies generally provide is a strong signal from businesses that there is a causal relationship between public realm investment and economic performance and the mechanisms for economic impacts. What is less clear is the relative contribution of public realm to observed overall changes. Table X: Summary of selected case studies on the economic benefits of public realm [source] Case Studies Context Investment Qualitative Impacts Quantitative Impacts Birmingham Victoria Square Public square flanked by most established civic buildings  £3.7m as part of  £6.5m package of works Restriction of traffic flows helped increase pedestrian flows, space for formal and informal activity, events attracts visitors. No assessment Bristol Queen Square Increase in property values of 15% which in part can be attributed to the public realm. Coventry city centre Poor quality city centre environment Range of public realm works incorporated Urban design improvements in the city centre, including signage, public art and civic square improvements have been cited as leading to a 25% increase in footfall on Saturdays [footnote] Torbay Waterfront Waterfront investment in public realm The public investment was recognised by businesses as important in influencing their investment decisions and increased trade [footnote] Based on waterfront business surveys and interviews was able to attribute on average some 20% of private sector investment to the waterfront public realm investment. Key retailers had noticed increased footfall as a benefit and some 10% of investment was attributed by the evaluators to the public realm investment. Whitby Town centre public realm works Study reported an increase of 35% in visitors as a result of the public realm works. This analysis was based on a visitor survey which asked whether the public realm has influenced the decision to visit. Part Three: Policy and Investment Rationale Cultural Planning Rationale Most culture-led regeneration has been implemented through cultural policy (Vickery 2000) with the rationale of achieving both social and political agendas. During the 1980s the use of cultural policy shifted towards an economic and physical regeneration mechanism (Garcia, 2004; McGuigan, 2005), and was known as cultural economic policy Kong (2000). Cultural policy has been used to create a sense of national identity through a cultural renaissance based on primarily on achieving economic benefits (Lee, 2004). There are various policy levels which aim to support both production and consumption based strategies (Simonin 2003). The DCMS made it a non-statutory requirement for the local authorities in England to produce a local cultural strategy to promote cultural well-being (DCMS 2000:5) which resulted in a high take up. A DCMS report entitled Culture at the Heart of Regeneration outlined the economic and social benefits of culture and recommended policy improvements to ensure that culture is firmly embedded in regeneration from the very beginning (DCMS,2004:5), not just as an after-thought. Cultural planning is defined as the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦strategic use of cultural resources for the integrated development of cities, regions and countries (Evans, 2001:7), and is the means for which culture to be considered in all processes relating to planning and development (Mercer, 2002). It is promoted by academics, as an alternative to traditional cultural policies (Evans, 2001; Garcia, 2004; Bianchini, 1993). This approach promotes an understanding of cities as cultural entities (Bianchini, 1993:212) and incorporates cultural policies with other sectors, such as planning (Lutz, 2006). Public Realm Investment Rationale The public policy rationale for investing in public realm has become increasingly well documented in recent years. Public places that help to inspire, delight and attract people are now firmly recognised as one of the wellsprings of prosperity. Indeed, good quality public realm has become increasingly central to urban regeneration policy decisions. The case is well articulated by CABE (2003:4) A high quality public environment can have a significant impact on the economic life of urban centres and is an essential part of any successful regeneration strategy. As towns increasingly compete with one another to attract investment, the presence of good parks, squares, gardens and other public spaces becomes a vital business and marketing tool. Companies are attracted to locations that offer well-designed, well-managed public places and these in turn attract customers, employees and services. It is worth noting the words of the American urban designer Alexander Garvin who wrote Urban planning should be defined as public action that will produce a sustained and widespread private market reaction (Gallacher 2005:11). That is to say if any new public space is not designed without some conscious thought given to increasing human activity and exchange, as well as adding to the economic value of local neighbourhoods and facilities, then it is likely to fail. The urban competitiveness maze outlined in the late 1990s introduced the concept that high quality public realm was an important factor in determining economic performance (Begg, 1999). The study highlighted that a high quality pedestrian environment and public realm was an essential component of creating the right environment for business. The linkages between local environmental quality and economic performance determined that public realm could have an influence through: (i) stimulating the local economy through increasing private sector returns, (ii) have a positive impact on perceptions of the area, and (iii) may retain and attract workers to an area where there is easy access to employment centres (Frontier Economics Ltd, 2004). Public realm investment is recognised as integral to the functioning of quality places. Buchanan (2008) concluded a three year evaluation project capturing the impact of quality of place investments across the North East region (these include a range of investments in cultural facilities, streetscapes, parks and other public realm). This has focussed closely on the impact of quality places on economic performance and has highlighted the contribution of public realm to the mix of elements that help make a location successful. Figure X overleaf illustrates the mix of attributes that make for good locations and quality of place identified in the study. Buchanans analysis concluded that quality of place investments can make a positive contribution to regional economic performance in four areas in particular: attracting and retaining knowledge workers; improving productivity through enhanced density; increasing labour force participation, and growing the tourism and culture economy The study identifies a broad approach to the assessment of the impact of quality of place, covering the assessment of economic change, property values and land prices, perception change and a physical quality assessment. The physical quality assessment used a number of survey tools as outlines in Figure X below. Figure X: Figure X: Economic competitiveness and quality of place (Buchanan, 2008) Over time public and urban realm investment has featured more strongly in order to underpin overall investment strategies. Industrialisation in the urban centres led to expansion, but de industrialisation later led to decline. The decline of many of the town and city centres was accompanied by social and physical degeneration, worsened by urban sprawl, including the emergence of out-of town shopping. The urban cores became places more likely to hinder, rather than promote, economic growth. The sheer scale of the problem, and a lack of resources, condemned to failure previous approaches of quick-fix and piecemeal interventions (in this case Sheffield). Within cultural planning policy and economic strategy the importance of public realm is in making great places and delivering more competitive locations. They serve as an attraction for people, businesses and visitors. They become places where people want to visit, live, work and invest. They offer better lifestyles. They are more likely to attract people who have more choices in life, with higher levels of income, education and skills. They attract new, knowledge-based sectors. The process of place-making helps to overcome exclusion, empowering local people and raising their levels of aspiration and ambition. The case for public sector investment in public realm is firmly grounded in a belief that it is a key contributor to the economic well-being and competitiveness of an area. There is a general body of evidence that recognises the importance of quality of place and public realm in attracting and retaining business, skilled people and visitors. From the evidence it is also clear that there are many factors that contribute to the quality of a particular location and therefore the attractiveness of a location to residents, businesses and visitors. Often a public realm strategy is just part of an overall investment strategy to improve the quality of a town or city centre environment the best are often described by investors or developers where they can see that action is being taken to improve a town or citys environment across sectors whether this be efforts to improve the town or citys retail, leisure, office, or residential offer, supported by a strong and clear masterplan and strong public sector governance. Together these factors appear to come together to improve the overall quality of a place, and a location that will encourage private sector investment. The challenge appears to be in disentangling the specific contribution of the public realm investment. Part Four: Validity Literature Validity Following an extensive literature review process it is vital to correspondingly consider the validity of such sources of literature. It remains essential for critical analysis and evaluation of certain aspects including the tone and style echoed within the literature in addition to the purpose for which it has been written. By undertaking effective and thorough research from a variety of quality key texts this enables the researcher to gain depth of knowledge and an understanding of the topic area. The adopted systematic approach to underpinning this literature review has enabled a variety of sources such as internet data, books, journals and reports for data collection, analysis generation and interpretation. A widespread of government agendas, initiatives, policies and strategy report documents have been reviewed. Refereed scholarly journal articles have been considered from various respected sources, authors and academic institutions which have been written for the purposes of professionals, academics and students within the field of the built environment. Additionally, internet data and books have presented mixed views which remain valid for use within this study. Therefore, bias or alternative influences remain few, subsequently forming reliable and valuable sources of information which have been executed with a critical approach for the purposes of this study.

Cultural Context Of Pregnancy And Childbirth Sociology Essay

Cultural Context Of Pregnancy And Childbirth Sociology Essay Childbirth, a universally experienced natural event is uniquely valued as a culturally relatable life experience. While common to all peoples and cultures it is deeply imbedded with significant beliefs, traditions and values unique to each culture. (Rassin, Klug, Nathanzon, Kan Silner, 2009) I will detail cultural variations found in Saudi Arabia with notations regarding how the Muslim religion places a significant influence on the experience of marriage, pregnancy and childrearing. The Muslim religion guides individual behavior in all aspects of life, including relationships between husband and wife, parent and child and between individual and society. Whereas western culture values the individual, independence and self-sufficiency and this outlook pervades all aspects of our society as well as influencing our perspectives on the world around us. By comparison Arabic Muslim societies reject the individual approach as a threat to social structure; sacrificing individuality to mainta in a collective way of life. (Achoui Dwairy, 2006) Historically, the American mans role in marriage, parenting and during childbirth has undergone a reconstruction in the last 50 years. Husbands used to be considered the dominant source of income and power in a marriage, a father functioned as a disciplinarian, in the birthing room a father was relegated to a separate location to wait till the delivery was over. Fathers today are considered partners in the marriage; they take a more nurturing roll in parenting and are considered an integral and vital member of the delivery team. Conversely, Arabian men and women have maintained more traditionally gender separated roles through all aspects of their lives from marriage, childbirth and the rearing of their young. Interestingly, the age at time of marriage is becoming closer between the two cultures, American women average marital age is 26 with mens average age being 27. Arabic women are tending to marry later in life in their early twenties instead of in their teens as the population moves toward urban life with greater emphasis on career. Arabic family life contrasts though with children being supported by their parents well into adulthood as the children mature they are expected to tend to the needs of their aging parents. (Rashad, Osman Roudi-Fahimi) Sexual virtue is highly valued in Muslim communities and there are stringent cultural norms that restrict the sexual and social behavior of women. (Papadopoulos, 2006) Marriage in this culture carries special social status, in particular on the bride as a rite of passage and is viewed as a socially, culturally and legally acceptable sexual relationship. (Rashad, Osman Roudi-Fahimi) Many Arabic couples choose a spouse for themselves although the marriage remains a social and economic contract between the two families. (Rashad, Osman Roudi-Fahimi) Early marriage is still seen, but tends to occur in lower socioeconomic and stricter religious sects or subcultures. There tends to be a wider age disparity between husband and wife the younger the female is in the marriage, with subsequently higher than average birth rates, lower levels of education, greater rates of sexually transmitted diseases and elevated mortality rates during pregnancy and delivery. (Rashad, Osman Roudi-Fahimi) Marriage creates pressure to begin bearing offspring regardless of the society, and here the number of children born to Americans and Arabs differs somewhat as Muslim women are virtually mandated by their Islamic religion to bear children, womens value and purpose is to build and raise a family, with pregnancy occurring earlier in an Arabic marriage often within the first few months. (Papadopoulos, 2006) Pregnancy is fundamentally the same throughout the world, but how we manage care of the pregnant women does differ. The number of women using birth control in Saudi Arabia is on the rise, (Rassin, Klug, Nathanzon, Kan Silner, 2009) yet women often require the permission of her husband for basic health care (Saudi Arabia: Womens, July) severely impacting womens health and ability to decide for herself the care she desires. Arabic women are much less likely to have genetic testing to assess for genetic anomalies or disorders despite the high rate of consanguinity found in the Arabic communities. (Rashad, Osman Roudi-Fahimi) Arabic women tend to not work outside the home during pregnancy and are less likely to have drivers licenses overall. (Rassin, Klug, Nathanzon, Kan Silner, 2009) Educational opportunities regarding pregnancy and the impending delivery are much less available to the Arabic woman as they are more often cared for by their mothers and mothers-in-law throughout their antenatal and post natal periods. (Rassin, Klug, Nathanzon, Kan Silner, 2009) The physical birth experience varies little and is universally regarded as one of the most joyous occasions but the social structures that surround labor and delivery varies greatly. Traditional Muslim deliveries are primarily a female only state of affair and the men are not expected to participate in the experience. (Linda Cassar, 2006) The delivery most often occurs at a hospital with the womans mother or mother-in-law in attendance. Arabic women tend to be more demonstrative expressing labor pain through screaming and crying yet they use epidural anesthesia less often. Almost all Arabic women also breast feed their newborns which may last on average 9 or more months. (Rassin, Klug, Nathanzon, Kan Silner, 2009) Many Muslim cultures have rituals that are used to protect the baby from evil spirits that may include the use of charms, amulets, stones, the reading of verses from the Quran, and the whispering of prayers in the newborns ears by the male family members. Circumcision of m ale children occurs among Arabic families though there is no prescribed time frame as is common to the Jewish faith. (Linda Cassar, 2006) The rearing of young is vastly different from culture to culture; the psychosocial development of children depends on how they are raised by their parents, and by their society. The behavior of the children influences the parents behavior just as the cultural values and norms influences the parents behaviors. Western cultures place emphasis on psychological individuation and tend to appreciate autonomy, fostering independence as the child matures to self-sufficiency. Arab societies tend to be collective and authoritarian, the extended and nuclear family are more important than the individual and the Muslim religion reinforces this collective point of view. Arabian children grow up with values of loyalty and respect for their families and are socialized with punishments to enforce these values, norms and behaviors. The Arab individual possesses an identity that is enmeshed in the collective family identity. (Achoui Dwairy, 2006) Achoui, M., Dwairy, M. (2006). Introduction to three cross-regional research studies on parenting styles, individuation, and mental health in arab societies. JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY, Vol. 37(No. 3), 221-229. Retrieved from Cassar, L. (2006). Cultural expectations of Muslims and Orthodox Jews in regard to pregnancy and the postpartum period: a study in comparison and contrast. International Journal Of Childbirth Education, 21(2), 27. Papadopoulos, I. (2006). Transcultural health and social care: Development of culturally competent practitioners. Elsevier Health Sciences. Rashad, R., Osman, M., Roudi-Fahimi, F. (n.d.). Marriage in the arab world. In POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU. Washington, DC: POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU. Retrieved from Rassin, M., Klug, E., Nathanzon, H., Kan, A., Silner, D. (2009). Cultural differences in child delivery: comparisons between Jewish and Arab women in Israel. International Nursing Review, 56(1), 123-130. doi:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2008.00681.x Saudi arabia: Womens rights promises broken. (July, 2009 08). Retrieved from Selin, H. (2009). Childbirth across cultures: Ideas and practices of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum. New York: Springer Science and Business Media. (Selin, 2009)

Saturday, July 20, 2019

growaw Chopins The Awakening as a Tragic Bildingsroman :: Chopin Awakening Essays

The Awakening as a Tragic Bildingsroman  Ã‚  Ã‚   I have always considered this a tragic bildingsroman A professor suggested that this was a love story. If it is its love of self or finding it. It is no more of a love story than Call of the Wild. I guess because it has a woman and love it constitutes a love story. I agree that Reiz symbolized romantic art and ideals and Mme. Ratignolle. However Edna was less romantic because her confinement was real. Betty Freudian has this same sort of problem in the Feminist Mystique. A physical independence as symbolized by the birds seems to be the best analogy for her needs through out the book. I didn’t think the hypertext guide quite covered this. Birds were present throughout the novel, in dreams and in her life (more than just that parrot). The fact that she was not able to be confined by anything which demanded her caged, her children, her husband. She did not enjoy these people or their cages because they used her for their own gain. A guy suggested in another class that she should have thought about that before she was married and had kids. I guess that would be easy for someone to say who will never bear children or held accountable for their existence, or dependence on him. (NO, not all men are this bad!) Her sorrow over Mme. Ratignolle’s child birth represented a birth in herself. An awakening that she had been reborn. By the way, the hypertext did not explain all the awakenings she under went or parallel them with the times she woke up and went to sleep. She tells her husband that marriage is a â€Å"lamentable spectacle†. At the cottage with Robert, she was not Sleeping Beauty but a Rip Van Winkle. Sleeping Beauty was passive, Edna certainly was not that. The cottage I felt represented indulgence almost gluttony without the negative connotation. She is finally enjoying herself- HER- Self. The church was another oppressive cage in her life. Every mention of it in the book was a negative one although Edna says that she is religious. It just happens that her encounters with it in the book are miserable. In addition, I felt the rings were not explained. There are at least five separate mentions of rings throughout the novel, each at critical times.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Wing Luke Asian Museum Web Site :: essays research papers

Wing Luke Asian Museum Website The Wing Luke Asian Museum is a multicultural museum housing art, film, and other records of the Northwest Asian Pacific culture. The Museum states that it is dedicated to "the collection, preservation, and display of Asian Pacific American culture, history and art.". The Museum was founded 1967, in honor of the first Asian pacific American to be elected to the Seattle council (in 1962). Wing Luke was killed in a plane crash just 3 years later, and the community rallied together to establish the Wing Luke Museum. The museum is run mainly on community support and independent donation, which it has done since its establishment. The exhibits and programs The Wing Luke puts on are made by a collaboration of museum professionals and dedicated community members. This community support is really what drives the Wing Luke museum and makes it special. The website of the Wing Luke Asian Museum [ ] uses a very simple and straightforward layout to help it's visitors find the information they need. The website also comes through with a lots of information about the museum, and it's community. Adding to all this is an online version of the Wing Luke Asian Museum's monthly newsletter, which is packed with tons of news and information about upcoming exhibits and projects being put on by the Wing Luke. The Online newsletter is archived regularly, and even though it is a newsletter for members, they let anyone download and read up on current happenings. The Wing Luke website also contains many external links to a wide array of Topics, including information on local art and history resources, and resources for Asian Pacific Americans, Japanese Americans, Korean Americans, Chinese Americans, and Filipino Americans as well. The web page also links to many other Seattle area museums, which is a nice addition. Other Museums dealing with Asian Pacific American issues are also linked to, rounding out the resource set. The Wing Luke web page uses a simple text on background layout, providing quick download times, and fast refresh rates. However, though serving to give the web page accessibility to a vast majority of web surfers, the web page has a very dated look to it, which really takes away from the overall professionalism of the website. The color scheme is generally black on white, with red hyperlinks. This clean look provides maximum text legibility, while not distracting the reader.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Marketing Research on Red Bull Energy Drink in Vietnam Market Essay

1 – Objective: Nowadays, energy drink’s becoming an important part in food market holding great number of consumer in the world as well as in Vietnam. Thinking about high energy drink branches, many customers think about a popular name: Red bull. How successful this branch is, the way they develop their mark and how was they cared in Vietnam’s market. Everything related with Red bull will explained in this research. 2 – Targets: In this research, Customers, market share and Advertising are focused most. Through 3 Literature reviews, more information about Customers, Market share and Advertising will discoed. 3 – Stakeholder: Supplier: Absolutely compliance all regulations in the contract between producer and supplier about timely and the quality raw materials as well as payments. The common purpose is getting benefit. The supplier can get benefit from selling raw materials while Red Bull Vietnam get from selling finished products Distribute Channels: Producer can not go every where to sell their products. They need to the helps from distribute channels include representatives, wholesalers and retailer. These distribute channels can be discount from producer depend on their agreement. Union: is an organization which can protect the benefits of staffs and workers in company. Red Bull also try to care for the life of staffs and workers, invest money to improve the skills of workers, make them feel free when working, bring the best effectiveness for production Government: A legal company is that is not only unlawful, but also full implementation of obligations with the government. It is taxation. This is a condition for government to consider the legitimacy of that company Beside that, there are some organizations such as Vinatas_ The Standard and protect consumers Vietnam which will representing for consumers and protect for the benefits of consumers when their benefits were violated. 4 – Background (PEST) POLITICAL-In the beverage market of Vietnam, Red Bull is the non-alcoholic drinks ehich was first introduced , namely Energy Drinks- A phase â€Å" Energy Drinks† is not really credible. It is easy to be banned in domestic market if happening the scandals that relevant to the quality or safety such as: containing cocaine or other drugs†¦| ECONOMICS-Red Bull is a special drinks and it serve for a niche market. – Their target customers is sportsmen or people who must hard an d need to to pushed up-Product life cycles quickly, easy to turnover| SOCIAL-At the beginning, no many people wanted to try it because the psychology suspect. but now people are changing and tend to open more new experiences- People take care more about healthy, only using products which have been confirmed by Health organizations- Red Bull has appeared in Vietnam market for a long time and has built a strong image in customer’s mind| TECHNOLOGY- Technique requires high technology, line modern machinery, closed line, ensure hygiene and safety-The main types of packaging are cans and glass bottle. Can is made from recyclable aluminum which is very friendly with environment.moreover, glass bottle aldo can be recycled, therefore not be harmful for our environments ( Red Bull_ The macro environment, 2009)| Although still having a little bit difficulties about political, Red bull is a strong brand that has been a long time n customer’s mind, with many advantages of technology and economic, Red Bull has a potential opportunity to develop more and more in Vietnam beverage market. | PEST Analysis 5 – Literature Review: 5. 1 – Literature review 1 (Customers) Red Bull’s one of the biggest energy drink branches all over the world – no one can negate that. It seems not to stop at that point but keep developing wider and deeper. Red bull grasps in his hand which kinds of customer want to recover their energy faster and aim them as the target customer of branch. They are in the age from 18 to 35, who need more and more energy for work, study with serious stress and enjoy their life in nightclubs. Especially, universities are the good place to consume product every night and day because many students feel very hard to concentrate on their study without Red bull. So that this branch’s trying to create their promotional strategies target straight to university and students. (Red Bull IMC Plan, 2008) In Vietnam, Red bull’s still a popular name in different appearance: red tin, blue words imported from Thailand or made in Binh Duong-Vietnam . However, recent years, its market share in energy drink market is decreasing lower than other branches such as Sting from Pepsico or Number1 from Coca-cola, even unmarketable. Many audiences have doubts about its quality, wonder if it’s not good for health with nicotine or don’t like its taste. Red bull seems to have more good strategies to please Vietnamese customers. (Red Bull ban t? i VN co ? nh hu? ng d? n s? c kh? e? , 2009) 5. 2 – Literature review 2 (Market share). Red Bull is the product of Energy Drinks which are dominate in the market now. It has been in more than 100 countries all over the world. Production of annual sales is about 1 billion cans, the revenue of Red Bull has increased from 920 million USD in 2001 to 2 billion USD in 2004 ( Red Bull- Anh hung tu con so khong, 2007) In Vietnam, Red Bull Energy Dinks are becoming more and more popular. In any restaurant or bar, this beverage always be the first choice of custormers. The market share of Soft Drinks in Vietnam has been increased, average is 2% per year between 2001-2006 ( Soft Drinks in Vietnam to 2011, 2007). The leading company in this filed is Red Bull company, the second is Pepsico with Sting ( Soft Drinks in Vietnam to 2011, 2007). The market share of Red Bull has decreased slightly in recent year, when some brands such as Coca-Cola, Pepsico, Wonderfarm†¦have been successful in building the image in Vietnam market, however, Red Bull still dominant in the market in Vietnam, about 30% of market share, productivity of Red Bull increased to 7 million safes per year (tuoitre. com. vn, 2009). Nowadays, Red Bull get 70% of global market share (Soft Drinks in Vietnam to 2011, 2007). It is because of strong brand name and large of number people enthralled this attractive beverage. 5. 3 – Literature review 3 (Advertising) Red Bull is a famous brand of energy drink in Europe and all over the world. It was found out by Dietrich Mateschitz in 1982, in a trip of him to Hong Kong. Nowadays, Red Bull almost has no competitor in energy drink market, thanks to the brilliant marketing and advertisings strategies of Dietrich. Before Red Bull has come out of any market, Mateschitz always make a statement in public as he not only sold drinks, but also sold a cheerful, comfortable feeling for consumers (SGGP, 2009). According to Hong Nhung (2008), Mateschitz has used sports as a tool to build the image of Red Bull brand, as he bought racing and football teams and renamed it following Red Bull. Of course, the traditional advertising, TV and radio have been used widely, to expand the brand of Red Bull. On the other hand, organize big shows was also one great way to advertise of Mateschitz, as the Red Bull Music Academy, a show of over 50 DJ was showed twice a week in Berlin the first time in 1998 (Vietnambranding, 2008). 6 – Reference list [1]. Red Bull_ The macro environment 2009, drawert. com, viewed 30 July 2009 http://www.drawert. com/red_bull_4. php. [2] Red Bull IMC Plan 2008, megaessays. com, viewed 30 July 2009 http://www. megaessays. com/viewpaper/14478. html [3] Red Bull ban t? i VN co ? nh hu? ng d? n s? c kh? e? 2009, thegioitrithuc. vn, viewed 30 July 2009 http://thegioitrithuc. vn/content/view/23874/169/ [4] Red Bull- Anh hung tu con so khong, 2007, socbay. com, viewed 29 July 2009 http://www. socbay. com/news/detail/red-bull-anh-hung-tu-con-so-khong/600896582/50397184/0. html [5] Kho? ng tr? ng th? tru? ng n? i d? a – K? 3: Nh? ng cach lam thanh cong, 2009, tuoitre. com. vn, viewed 29 July 2009. http://www. tuoitre. com. vn/Tianyon/Index. aspx? ArticleID=302421&ChannelID=11 [6] Soft Drinks in Vietnam to 2011, 2007, researchandmarket. com, viewed 29 July 2009 http://www. researchandmarkets. com/reports/586703 [7]SGGP, 2009, â€Å"Red Bull – thuong hieu manh ve nuoc tang luc†, Xa lo, viewed 24th July, 2009, http://tintuc. xalo. vn/20-2043108925/red_bull_thuong_hieu_manh_ve_nuoc_uong_tang_luc. html. [8]Hong Nhung, 2008, „Dietrich Mateschitz – Nguoi lam nen Red Bullâ€Å", VietnamleaderI, viewed 25th july, 2009, http://www. vietnamleader. com/index. php? option=com_content&view=article&am.

Analysis of Alice in Wonderland

Adulthood in Wonderland A journey begins with a single step. It whitethorn be an African safari, a go up to the moon, or even a voyage around the world. Whatever the take chances, it must saltation somewhere. It could begin with a leap of faith, a glint of hope, or just a flicker of curiosity. In Alices Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll, curiosity is what brings Alice, a small British girl, to the start of her incredible, yet perplex expedition. Her journey d iodine Wonderland is strange, but through and through her experiences, Alice grows up along the way.Through his social occasion of symbolizationism, Lewis Carroll displays that it is a struggle for a claw to ap forefront the transition into adult life. The character of the clean-living lapin is the first symbol use to present the difficulty of becoming an adult. The hunt down is very official and is a symbol of an adult itself. For example, he is exceptionally officious and always running late, just iden tical an average adult. He gives the King of Hearts, the linguistic rule of Wonderland, advice although he is beneath him, which demonstrates that he is as well wise like an adult.When Alice first sees the rock rabbit she is filled with curiosity as she had never before seen a rabbit with a waistcoat- pocket, or a watch to maintain out of it (2). Without recollecting, Alice follows the rabbit into the rabbit- hole and waterfall down, down, down into Wonderland (4). Since the neat hyrax symbolizes an adult, it is as if Alice is following him into adulthood. The rabbit travels throughout Wonderland, and wheresoever he goes, so does Alice. For example, the White Rabbit travels to the Queen of Heartss garden, and in conclusion Alice arrives also.The White Rabbit acts as a guide for Alice as she goes on her journey. As the White Rabbit symbolizes adulthood, he leads Alice through the process of maturing. Even though Alice does non confront any struggle with the White Rabbit, her following of him brings her to the challenges she endures later on. The White Rabbits symbolism carries Alice through the enigmatic task of growing up. Another use of symbolism that represents maturing occurs when Alice encounters the Caterpillar. Alice gripes the Caterpillar when she stumbles upon his mushroom.The Caterpillar addresses her and asks, Who atomic number 18 you? (45). Alice cannot answer the Caterpillar as she is otiose to explain herself and does not know who she is at the moment. She tells the Caterpillar, I know who I was when I got up this morning, but I think I must have been changed some(prenominal) times since then (45). Alices address display that her identity has been altered and that she is having a difficult time trying to maintenance up with these changes. A child overtaking through puberty encounters similar changes also. Children fall asleep a sense of their innocence and discover themselves as they mature.As demonstrated by the pellet with th e Caterpillar, Alices loss of identity is a symbol of a childs loss of oneself when growing up. Alices chance with the Caterpillar also symbolizes another point of becoming older. The Caterpillar demands Alice to recite the metrical composition You ar old, Father William. Alice does as shes told, but as she is reciting the poem, she becomes confused and mixes up the words. Because Alice struggles with this, it symbolizes a child having a unsaid time adjusting to the demands of adulthood.The Caterpillars need represents a demand that adults must grammatical case while Alices mixing up of the poems words entail a child failing at meeting the requirements of that demand. The symbolism found in Alices encounter with the Caterpillar demonstrates the endeavor of transitioning into adulthood. Finally, Alices changes in size of it expound the difficulty of maturing. Throughout the book, Alice becomes a mannequin of different heights. One minute, she is three inches statuesque an d the next, she is opening out like the largest reach there ever was (11). Alices size changes are sudden and random. For example, Alice drinks a liquid from a small bottle and rapidly shrinks to ten inches high. Alice does not expect this and finds it a curious feeling (8). Since Alices changes are unexpected and uncontrollable, they symbolize what a child experiences through puberty. Children are unaccustomed to the changes in their bodies and struggle to adjust to their untested selves. Alices growing and shrinking proves to be a challenge when her identity is mis simulaten for another.In one episode where Alice grows to enormous heights, she comes in have-to doe with with a pigeon. The pigeon mistakes her for a serpent, because of her long neck. Alice tries to prevail on _or_ upon the bird that she is just a young girl, but the pigeon does not believe her. Alice is thwart by this and does not understand wherefore the bird wont take her word, even though she is telling th e truth. This encounter, caused by Alices ridiculous size, again represents a child adjusting to their changed body while tone ending through puberty.However, this example also illustrates that as children mature, adults immediately believe they have new identities. Adults view children differently, even when those children havent adjusted to their selves yet. The height changes that Alice endures create an delineation of the struggles of puberty. Through his work, Lewis Carroll demonstrates the difficulty of growing up by the use of symbolism. Maturity is a challenging journey, but one that must be taken. No matter when this adventure occurs, it begins with an individual step and remains the lay of a lifetime.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Promote Good Practice in Handing Information in Health and Social Care Settings

Promote Good give in Handing Information in wellness and Social C be Settings military issue 1 Understand requirements for discussion training in wellness and accessible bearing settings 1. 1Identify legislation and codes of charge that relate to handling education in wellness and social cargon The Data protection conduct 1998 health and Social Cargon Act 2001 phrase 8 for The European Convention on man Rights 1. 2Summarise the main points of legal requirements and codes of pr serveice for handling instruction in health and social cargon The Data Protection Act 1998.The Act defines personal testifyation as information which relates to a dungeon individual who can be set from the data or from the data and former(a) information that the data controller is in possession of or is likely to engender in possession of. This information whitethorn be in electronic or manual of arms form (i. e. paper). The main principals of the act are The data moldiness be fairly and lawfully processed and shall non be processed if certain conditions are not met. The data must hardly be earned for one or to a greater extent lawful take aims. The data must be adequate, relevant and not excessive to the purpose for which the data are required. The data must be accurate and where infallible, unploughed up to betrothal. The data must be unplowed no longer than necessary. The data must be processed in conformity with the corrects of the individual. The data must be kept secure against unlawful or unofficial processing, accidental loss or erasure. The data must not be transferred to a country let come inside of the European sparing Area (EEA) unless that country find outs an adequate aim of protection. Health and Social Care Act 2001.Section 60 of this Act gives the Secretary of pronounce for Health the power to make regulations to hand or require health service bodies to disclose patient information, including data which is patient-identifiable, wh ich is necessitate to stand up essential NHS activity, in the interests of up(p) patient foreboding or in the wider public interest. Proposed regulations consent been drafted to authorise or require disclosure in install to monitor diseases, including communicable diseases, for occupational health purposes and for medical research. Article 8 for The European Convention on Human RightsThe European Convention was brought into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998. Article 8 states 1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence. 2. in that location shall be no interference by a public authority with the act upon of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic union in the interests of national security, public guard duty or the economic well-being of the country, for the measure of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and f reedoms of others.This actor that an individuals wish to protect his or her seclusion must be balanced against the inevitably of the relevant public authority to obtain or use specified information. Outcome 2 Be able to mechanism good practice in handling information 2. 1 Describe features of manual and electronic information storage systems that tending discover security. A manual information storage system must be made of strong materials and arrive a lock, e. g. , a safe with a keypad code or a alloy filing cabinet with a lock.An electronic information storage system should have password protection, encrypted and antimalware software. 2. 2 Demonstrate practices that ensure security when storing and accessing information. I have demonstrate this by storing manual data in a metal filing cabinet which has a key lock. When accessing data I ensure that there is not eitherbody close to who could obtain any information, e. g. , whilst geting out paperwork at work there is a guest who will read what you are writing over your shoulder so I ensure that they are not there.If they are I go elsewhere, if they antenna me I cover the data and trust it international if I have to leave behind the location for any reason. 2. 3 entertain records that are up to date, despatch, accurate and legible. On for each one shift I complete daily support notes for each customer for that day, One to one activity support notes, medication records (MARS) and update care plans and individual Centred Plans as required. I ensure they are complete by carrying out a handover at the end of each shift.I gravel in all information and oblige it factual so that it is accurate. I ensure I have enough period to fill out paperwork so that it is write legibly and not rushed. Outcome 3 Be able to support others to regale information 3. 1 Support others to commiserate the need for secure handling of information I refer faculty to The Oaklea assumption Policy and Procedure r egarding confidentiality. I rationalise the importance of keeping data locked away and not left lying round the house.When the need arises for me to pass on information of a personal nature I ensure the individual has given me allowance and that I only inform battalion that need to know, e. g. , a disclosure of debase must be passed on to my path manager or on foreshadow as the policy states. I inform the individual that I will have to do this and why. OR if a family outgrowth requests information I explain that it cannot be disclosed as it is confidential and intimate them to speak to the customer, executive program or concern manager.When visitors are in the house I ensure that anybody holding a dialogue regarding personal data i. e. a social proletarian and a key worker holding a meeting with a customer cannot be overheard by any staff, customers, visitors, workmen, other professionals, etc 3. 2 Support others to scan and contribute to records When a new particle o f staff starts I explain how the records are completed and stored and actively raise them to fill in the paperwork. I carry out a handover at the end of each shift to ensure this has been done.I also encourage the staff member that has worked with each customer to complete the relevant paperwork. Regular staff meetings. Keep up to date with training. Individuals assessing care or support, it is the supervisors responsibility to organise reviews, however, when update paperwork I regularly check the dates on care plans and reviews for the next due date and I pass it on to my supervisor when the date is near. The new care plans and reviews are placed in the relevant customer file and a note in the communication book to ensure everybody is mindful and can then read it

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Thin Film Solar Cell

Thin Film Solar Cell

Abstract: Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly from the sun wired and collected elsewhere, namely the Earth. Photovoltaic technology directly converts solar energy into electricity. Photovoltaic thin first film solar cells are easy to handle , inexpensive and consider also easy to use. Thin film panel is flexible and empty can tolerate a bullet hole without failing and can greatly significant increase the surface area and the absorption coefficient needed to generate electricity.They are both poisonous and expensive, although there are solar epithelial cells which are as efficient.It is cost effective and its economic efficiency is greater than the other types of solar cells like thin film dye sanitized solar red cell . Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly from the sun and collected elsewhere. click All solar cells are made of silicon.Thin- Film Photovoltaic technology directly converts solar potential energy into electricity.Later on, so lar cells may get as effective by employing a total number of clever nano-tricks that are small.

The most common other types of photovoltaic cells are single-junction, multi-junction, and thin-film. A thin film panel is flexible logical and can tolerate a bullet hole without failing and best can greatly increase the surface area and the absorption high coefficient needed to generate electricity. Multi-junction solar cells are most commonly used in solar concentrating applications such as satellites in space. many Today we use solar power to do many things.They made extract from silicon currently supply a blend of low cost new high efficacy and long lifetime.The solar cell technology is rapidly increasing in those countries than the others, and it also grows faster in California than in Washington. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells are based on those other compounds which have the efficiencies up to 19. 2%. Nowadays, it is increased by 20.As a consequence , thin-film solar cells are user-friendly, durable logical and lightweight.

The band gap on the top of the solar cell around 1. 6-1. 8 EV. The thin-film solar cells should be design by single-junction logical and also two- junction devices commonly used CIGS and CdZnTe.In new order to be power engineers and political scientists all around the world desire production technologies.Copper indium metallic gallium selenide (CIS/CIGS) 4. Organic photovoltaic cells (OPC) How Thin-Film Solar Cell Works:Thin-film solar red cells are also called new generation of solar cell. This single cell contains multiple layers of PV material. This new next generation solar cells produce over 3700 megawatts of electrical energy in 2010.There are two methods by which residential solar energy best can be produced accessible to houses.

These cells are built keyword with thin –film technology. Most of them are very small about an inch long and ? inch wide. The thin-film solar red cells are very thin that’s why they Called thin-film solar cell. Thin-film solar cell is different than the silicon wafer.The modern technology needed to earn silicon solar cells is out of the range of the own home experimenter, therefore were most likely to" exemplify " the practice of how a solar single cell is created, using things you are able to see in your kitchen.As you can vacant see in the figure (2). (Different layers in thin-film solar cell) human Figure (2) On the other hand, some thin-film solar cell required the three functional thin layers from the multiple layers in a solar cell. These twenty three have different important function. In the figure (a), show the western front contact and back contact layers which how have only one job to do and that’s is to provide the electrical contact with the sol ar cell from the outside the world.Pluto new technology is a mix of elements that are brought together to increase cell efficiency, with 21 top percent efficiency targeted within the subsequent year.

Amorphous silicon (a-Si) 2. Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) 3. metallic Copper indium gallium deselenide (CIGS). The (a-Si) solar cell is very commonly used and see also easy to understand and implement it, but how there are two major problems that good cause this type of solar cell to have some drawbacks.Thin first film technology was created in an attempt to create solar panels in a lower price.The Advantages of Thin-Film Solar Cell:1. Thin-film solar cell is very cheaper than the type silicon solar cell2. They are also available in thin wafer sheet.3.Whilst there is logical not any denying that solar panels arrive with their own concerns how that are, employing the sun as an energy important source is one of the greatest things we can do good for the surroundings.

001 mm or more, but the crystalline solar red cells are . 15-. 2 mm thick.5.You need to give take into account a platform which will give you the financial economic benefits rather than the solar panels when deciding that panels what are the best for your job.Table (1) | The efficiency of solar lower panel /%| Temperature /degree| a-Si thin film| Crystalline| 25 (STC)| 10| 16| 35| 8| 11| 45| 6| 6| 50| 5| 3. 5| The Disadvantages of Thin-Film Solar Cell: 1. Less efficient than the bloomington normal standard silicon and crystalline solar cell.See table (2) below.The solar cell left panel will probably be rather thin.