Wednesday, November 27, 2019
World Economies Top 10 Exporters and Importers in the World Introduction As the world globalizes and liberalization of free trade advocated for, countries are looking for what they can produce cheaply and best in order to reduce the cost of production involved lessening the strain to worldÃ¢â¬â¢s resources which are at an alarming declining rate. Any country in the world has got the resources it is well endowed with and the resources it is poorly endowed with.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on World Economies: Top 10 Exporters and Importers in the World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, with trade liberalization specialization has been boosted as countries can produce their specialty cheaply, trade with others, and still have the purchasing power of what cannot be cheaply produced within their own countries. To succeed in this, the country needs to evaluate its critical success factors to enable it succeed. To enable trade all over the world there has been an establishme nt of an international body which looks into trade matters, the World Trade Organization. WTO was created in the year 1995 though it has been working since 1945 under the GATT guidelines. Contribution of UAE in International Market with Respect to Goods and Services According to a WTO report, the United Arab Emirate success in trade (both locally and at internationally) has mainly been supported by its liberal and multifaceted economy which is characterized by low trade barriers. Ã¢â¬Å"The economy has been growing steadily at around 6% per year in the last 10 years and slightly higher at 9% in the period between 2003- 2005Ã¢â¬ (WTO Press Release Par. 2). The country fares well in the international trade with its exports spread across the whole world. According to the statistics of 2004, the European commission was the lead market for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s exports while Asia was the main source of its imports (see table 3 in appendices). This might have led to itsÃ¢â¬â¢ success as the raw materials are sourced from around the continent giving the country an upper hand in cutting down the cost of production involved. The European Commission is the major market for the United Arab Emirates as table 4 in appendices indicates. The country is a major exporter of oil products (Moore 2008). The country is also a lead exporter of merchandise trade as shown in table 1. The country lies at position 19 as of 2007 statistics. Despite the country success it has been faced by trade barriers within, which makes it difficult to conduct business within the country due to their restrictive polices, weak institutions, and lack of competition (WTO press release 2006).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Top Ten Exporters and Importers in World Merchandise Trade The critical success factors of the world top ten exporters and importers lies on the efforts thes e countries have been making to open up of their economies coupled with different economic strategies and initiatives being initiated by these countries. For the top ten exporters and importers of merchandise trade our focus shall be centrally on China due to its emergence as a world economic leader in the near future. As we have seen, China is the leading exporter of merchandise trade while the United States is the lead importer of merchandise in the world as per the statistics. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s success factors have simply been based on the fact that the country has a huge market due to its large population size and economy is growing holistically across all sectors. For example in the year 2008, China surpassed the United States of America as the world leader in the production of electronics such as the laptops and mobile phones. With its growing population, the country has grown to become the second largest car market in the world and could surpass United States of America by the e nd of the year 2010 if the expected sales are achieved as predicted. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s middle class population is estimated to be around half a billion and if the middle class continues to grow in this country you can expect the market share of China in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s market to increase. Another critical success factor has been that China operates the third busiest port after Hong Kong and Singapore thus with the capability of the ShanghaiÃ¢â¬â¢s port becoming the largest shipping port in the near future, the prospects of China are still bright as ever. As the above figure shows, the country has the largest world GDP share after the United States of America and with its growing population of more than 1.3 billion people China will continue to be a big market destination. China has got the highest literacy levels among the developing countries and this has been a success factor as it shows that the country has the capability of providing quality labor at low costs, which is difficult to be marched by other big economies such as the United States of America. The entry of China into the WTO has also been a major boost in enabling the country open its local markets for international investors. The country has been offering international investors a comfortable environment in which they can conduct trade by offering tax incentives, for example sometimes she offers tax waivers to foreign investors depending on the location of their investment projects (Cohen 2010.) In some places within the country, there exist free trade zones as the country increases its efforts to attract foreign investment in these areas. Despite the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s success, many companies in China do not practice due diligence as most do not keep proper inventory of their records.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on World Economies: Top 10 Exporters and Importers in the World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many companie s keep different records depending on the use for example you will find companies keeping books for government inspectors, investors, and for their own all with different entries but referring to the same accounts. The banking system is also suffering from in active loans for example statistics show that in the year 2008, bad debts were to the extent of more than 50 billons American US dollars (Kang, Kim, Sun, Jones Zangh 2010). Among the European Union members, Germany lies second in exporting and third at importing in the merchandise trade and it is the leading in Europe and her critical success factors have been attributed to the fact that just as the other countries, Germany has embraced an open economic system. As observed by Hamilton Quinlan (2008) evidence shows that, Ã¢â¬Å"The German economy is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth largest, measured by purchasing power parity, and of the five is the most tightly tied to the global economy Ã¢â¬â more than the U.S., China, India or J apan. Germany is also the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s #1 exporter of goods and the #3 exporter of services. Germany accounts for only 1.5% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population yet in recent years it has actually boosted its share of global markets.Ã¢â¬ (p. 2). The growth has been achieved despite pressure from other emerging economies like China and India who boasts a high population in their countries compared to Germany. The Top Ten Exporters and Importers of Commercial Services The critical success factors on the top ten importers rely on country policies and our focus here shall be on the United States of America for its role as the global leader for a very long period. The United States of America is the global leader at both importing and exporting of commercial services as from 2009 statistics shown in table 2. European Union countries comprising of the UK, Germany, France and Spain among others contribute to more than 25% of the market share with China having a fair share of 3.8%. As noted by Gutierrez (2007) before the economic crisis in the year 2008, there was evidence that the US economy had grown at a rate of Ã¢â¬Å"3.3% in 2006 and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s exports had grown to 13% in 2005 and imports by 10% over the same periodÃ¢â¬ (p.5). The factors which have made the US a major success in the world of exports has been itsÃ¢â¬â¢ huge growth as well as the trade promotion authority which has enhanced free trade agreements between the country and other countries. With the highest percentage of consumers being outside the United States of America, the World Trade Organization plays a key role and the Doha talks if succeeds will enhance an increase in US exports to other countries around the world.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Gutierrez (2007) experts argue that Ã¢â¬Å"American competitiveness in the global market is due in large part to an economy and culture that welcome and encourage innovation and flexible open marketsÃ¢â¬ (32). The other leading EU countries include the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Ireland with China and Japan coming there in between. Fastest Growing Traders Among the fastest growing traders in the world are China, India, Brazil and lately Qatar, though its economy size is small compared to the others. These countries emergence as fast traders has been attributed to their rising populations due to their large size thus giving them a chance for a large internal market and room for external market demands depending on their needs. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why in the recent past, less developed countries have been relying on India, China and Brazil to help them convince the developed to reduce barriers and tariffs in trade so as to ensure even the poor and the Less Developed Countries benefit from liberalization of trade (Wood 2010). These growing economies are expected to have an influence in the world of trade as we have seen in the case where Brazil has grown to the extent that it has of late disagreed with the UN on imposing economic sanctions on Iran over its role in nuclear weapons. Brazil has refused to impose sanctions on the country and it has grown into a position where it can sanction the United States of America after directions from the WTO for breaking the WTO guidelines (Dade 2010). Both India and China have the majority population at 37% expected to drop to 34% by 2040 and their share of the GDP expected to grow to 40 % (Srinivasan 2010). India success has mainly based on its growing population and the liberalization of trade, which provides a large market pool for the Indian goods and services. The free trade policies have enabled the country export and import its goods and services at cheap costs and with its latest inve stments in infrastructure, the country will continue to grow. Qatar has been another country from Asia which has been growing rapidly. As pointed out by Omran (2010), evidence shows that it has the Ã¢â¬Å"highest per capita income in the world and enjoys one of the fastest growing GDPs, reaching 13.3% real GDP, and valued in 2008 at over US$80 billionÃ¢â¬ (Par 1). he countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has been expanding in every sector. The country has been expanding its investment for infrastructures and expansion of the economy in almost every sector. The liberalization of trade has also enhanced rapid and expanding trade in this country. With new oil fields being discovered daily and the petroleum products supply declining, Qatar will continue to grow rapidly. Conclusion As the world globalizes and it develops to a global village, interactions will increase and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s dependency on one another will continue to increase. From the study we can conclude that the United States of America remains a global leader in world trade though the role of emerging economies such as China and India cannot be underestimated. Countries that supply the world with oil products will continue to expand faster than other economies due to the latest importance of oil products in the world. Reference List Cohen, J. C. 2010. Hearing on Evaluating ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Past and Future Role in the World Trade Organization Web. Available from: http://ecattrade.com/uploads/content/45D2497564D74299B3EF0F50A8A25D7A.pdf . Dade, C. 2010. Brazil Confirms It Will Impose Trade Sanctions against U.S Web. digitaljournal.com/article/288782 . Gutierrez, C.M. 2007. The 2007 National Export Strategy: AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s Trade Promotion Agenda Web. Available from: http://trade.gov/media/Publications/pdf/nes2007FINAL.pdf . Hamilton, D. S; Quinlan, P.J. 2008. Germany and Globalization Web. Available from: http://transatlantic.sais-jhu.edu/bin/u/k/GermanyandGlobalization-eng.pdf . International Trad e Statistics, 2010. World Trade Developments in 2009 Web. Available from: wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2010_e/its10_world_trade_dev_e.htm . Kang, S; Kim, S.H. S; Sun, F; Jones, P; Zangh, D. 2010. China Acquisition Opportunities 2010 Morgen Web. Available from: morgenevan.com/pages/reports/China2010.pdf . Moan, G. 2010. ME traders Qatar Expo 2010 Web. Available from: http://tradeshow.tradekey.com/view-6408/me-traders-qatar-expo-2010.htm . Moore, M. 2008. The US-UAE Trade and Investment Relationship Web. Available from: usuaebusiness.org/view/resources/uploaded/USUAEWhitepaper.pdf. Srinivasan, T.N. 2010. Economic Reforms, External Opening and Growth: China and India Web. Available from: apeaweb.org/confer/hk07/papers/srinivasan.pdf . Wood, C. 2010. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s needed for the Doha Round to Move Ahead? Web. Available from: http://shopfloor.org/tag/wto. World Trade Organization Press Release, 2006. Trade Policy Review: United Arab Emirates (UAE) Web. Available from: wto.org/englis h/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp263_e.htm .
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Gamification in Education Often the term Ã¢â¬Å"gamificationÃ¢â¬ is met with controversy, resistance and confusion, as it is not completely clear what is meant by its implementation into education. If you strip away all of the additional information that has been added over the years, gamification is simply adding elements that are usually related to games or game-like activities into the classroom. Some examples of these features include: points, a focus on competition and a clear set of rules. This does not just mean games that are used in the classroom but rather activities or tasks that have game-like features added to them. This is an important difference to note. It seems like a straightforward concept but it is usually poorly implemented within education. This misuse can range from gamification being a mild yet useless distraction right to transforming an educational program into a farce of games masquerading as learning opportunities. In this article we will look at the best use of gamification and how it can increase the overall retention of information. We will also provide a range of methods to successfully bring gamification into everyday classroom activities without it becoming a waste of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s time. Ã More Complex Than Playing Games Often students, teachers and parents make the mistake of thinking that gamification is simply adding games to the classroom. There is a famous range of games that are considered educational but this is not the same as the concept of gamification. This is explained further in a great article by Steven Isaacs. To better understand the key differences between games, game-based activities and gamification, here are some points to consider: Win or Lose? In gamification there is not always a built-in chance of losing. The purpose is to motivate the students to learn or to take action and therefore there shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be any form of demotivation. This is why the focus is always on achievement and the attainment of new goals. Content Ã¢â¬â The game features are added to the educational system rather than the focus being on content, such as with traditional games or game-based learning. This is why gamification usually has in-depth storylines, which makes it an easier and less time-consuming system to implement. Objective Ã¢â¬â The main aim for gamification is for the participants to collect points as a form of reward. This is in direct contrast with games or game-based learning, as these forms of education have strictly defined learning objectives or even no objective at all. Gamification, therefore, has a wider and more flexible learning style that means students can develop knowledge rather than immediately stopping once a certain goal has been reached. For more details there is a useful infographic that shows the major differences between gamification, games and game-like activities. In More Detail Ã By now you will have a better picture and understanding of what gamification really is in a general sense. This is a good start and will now allow us to shift the focus to not what it is, but rather why it is important and significant in education today. Before we look at why gamification has become widely used and what the benefits are, we must first examine a brief history of this theory. The first example of gamification came in 1896 when stamps were sold to retailers and then used to reward loyal customers. This was all put into motion by marketers that claimed great success and results in reinforcing buying behavior and company engagement. In the 70s the theory began to form with Thomas Malone publishing, Ã¢â¬Å"What Makes Things Fun to Learn: A Study of Intrinsically Motivating Computer GamesÃ¢â¬ in 1980. After this work was published companies, such as American Airlines, Holiday Inn and National Car Rental, began implementing reward systems for their customers. While gamification has been present ever since, it was not until Nick Pelling coined the official term in 2003. For businesses, consumers and lifelong learners, gamification is now a mainstream approach and a way of life with support and funding from many official bodies. To put things simply, the growth of gamification has established a place in both the workforce and education because it has been proven to be successful, whether it is with consumers gaining rewards for flying frequently or students achieving better test results. The reason for this success is due to the fact that this approach makes any task more interactive and essentially playful. This includes: Providing Goals. This offers the consumer or the student a step or a level to get to. This means that there is a visual progress throughout the process. Keeping The Participant Motivated. Having goals is a good way to stay motivated. This, paired with being able to get rewards, keeps the learner or the consumer interested and motivated to continue to focus on the task. Constant Rewards. What is better than getting rewards for your work or for your loyalty? This gives real value to any progress that is being made. Ã In these ways, gamification can make anything more enjoyable and hook users into a process of learning. This means that consumers will be more likely to buy from one company or buy more often as they are being rewarded for doing so. Students will reap different educational benefits. What Teachers Can Expect From Gamification The same principles that are applied to gamification in any setting can be successfully used in the classroom. The strength of this theory in schools is something that can create synergy between classroom learning as focused on by the teacher and classroom learning becoming a focus for students. Few students would say that the normal classroom setting is playful or enjoyable. Gamification is something that changes that by giving students the goals and rewards as previously mentioned, but this can also have lasting positive effects in other areas. This process will: Motivate students to become more involved, Give teachers better tools for teaching and for giving out appropriate rewards, Encourage students to present their full capacity for learning at all times. Gamification shows students that learning can be more interactive, they can receive rewards to give value to their work and that formal and informal educational settings can combine for great results. Teachers can expect their students to be more self-motivated in the classroom. Rather than pulling teeth to get students to sit down and work through problems, they will want to work towards goals and reach those achievements on their own. Removing some aspects of having a formal learning environment can be extremely beneficial in the sense that students will not necessarily view the gamification aspects as uninteresting but rather will participate in active learning. While immediate benefits are regularly seen by teachers in the way students view the classroom, in their approach and their results, there are other advantages to consider that will follow the students throughout their learning career and life. These include: Modern Life Skills It is especially important for students to gain the skills necessary for them to enter into the 21st century as successful citizens. This means giving students access to technology and programs that will show them the real life situations. Students will develop a new framework for understanding the tasks around them and their school environment through gamification and being able to work within a reward system similar to many work situations. Deeper Understanding This theory will promote a better understanding of issues and solutions. Gamification helps students understand which problems need to be fixed, create systems of thinking that will promote a solution and maintain the effectiveness of those solutions. Students will be able to be creative throughout this process and this is actively encouraged. Promote Creative Thinking Students are able to experiment more as they learn. By testing the rules and the roles they are a part of, students will be able to understand the boundaries of the situation and of their learning. This promotes more awareness of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s self and abilities. Love of Learning The encouraged lifelong pursuit of learning is another side effect of introducing gamification and using it as a tool in the classroom. Students will no longer find learning a dull experience but rather something to be approached with the intent to achieve a goal and become a better person overall. Engaging the Learner Gamification, if implemented correctly, makes education more engaging and enjoyable. The learning environment can be more creative, playful and free as students have the game-like features of their education promoting a subject in a more digestible manner. The potential for gamification in practice and the results can be endless depending on how it is used and implemented. If these reasons are not enough for you to become invested in this method then we have included examples of specific learning programs and procedures that have been proven to be effective in the classroom. Ã The Success Stories Ã Gamification can be a useful classroom tool that will encourage a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s natural desire to learn by presenting them with interesting materials and tasks with aspects of games built into them. The effectiveness of this education method has been proven time and time again. Here are some noteworthy examples: The World Peace Game. This is a political simulation for the classroom that is game-based but is more of a scenario task for students to carry out. Created by John Hunter in Virginia, this version of gamification is designed to teach the children about being a part of the global community and the complexity of relationships between different nations around the world.How does it work? The teacher introduces the information students need to interact. This is generally a scenario with details about the resources of a country, their political positions, issues they face and various other important pieces of information. The students use these facts and achieve cooperation and positive relationships. While this specific case of gamification is marketed as a game, the details give students focus and goals while they work. PaiÃ¢â¬â¢s Class. This is a digitally assisted learning environment for students. In this kind of classroom, students use various devices to access games, programs and the Internet in conjunction with their studies. This means that students will be learning about a particular subject or many subjects and be introduced to basic concepts using technology. This use of technology and age-appropriate graphics has increased interest and improved overall test scores. Students can reach different levels and get rewards for their success within the technology that they use. This is a school of gamification that can be used across many different age groups and with a wide range of subjects and topics. Coursera. This is an educational technology that operates collaboratively with leading universities to make their courses available to students for free. This is an example of gamification that applies to higher-level learning rather than the more commonly thought of elementary school environment. This program requires students to watch videos on their subjects of choice and then submit assignments and tests for evaluation. In this process students can level up and receive badges and rewards for their achievements. There is also a level of interaction between students to enhance the overall learning experience and create a community feeling. Bringing The Theory Into The Classroom We HavenÃ¢â¬â¢t Been Properly Introduced It is very difficult to immediately include a full range of gamification techniques into the classroom. Some of the most challenging aspects are: Getting students to the idea of a constant reward system, Fully understanding a potentially complex system before putting it into place, Creating the unique style of gamification that suits the specific group of students. When first starting to use gamification, it is a good idea to focus on educational games. Many classrooms have game-related activities built into the daily routine but not all focus on the concept of being rewarded, beyond the student being able to enjoy the process of learning. Including gamification concepts in the classroom is easy by gently adapting existing games that students are familiar with. By including badges, achievements, points and other aspects of the theory, any game-based activity becomes a starting point for implementing the theory as a whole. Here are some classic games that are easily transformed into tools for gamification. Scheduled Doses Ã¢â¬â A common issue with this theory is choosing the right time to include it in the daily timetable of a classroom. It is a huge task for students to go from nothing to absolutely everything they do being point-based. By selecting activities that will have a system based on points and building from there, the atmosphere will become implemented slowly and it will quickly spread to other activities, usually at the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s request. It is important to not try to make gamification an all-or-nothing system and to integrate it into a full curriculum. One of the best places to start are grades. Instead of using the traditional system you can equate these to terms that remind students of games. This includes concepts such as: Achievements, XP points, Badges, Lives, Levels, If you are creative, then it is fun to invent all of the ways that your classÃ¢â¬â¢ favorite video game references can be implemented into the grading system. For some inspiration there are fantastic suggestions here. Foster Competition Ã¢â¬â It is a common theme in education to not create too much competition between students but this is crucial for gamification to be successful. There has to be a desire for points and this is important to foster, especially at the beginning. There are several ways that the teacher can encourage competition including: Leaderboards Ã¢â¬â Making the number one spot publicly means that students will know what they need to do to get higher on the board. Prizes Ã¢â¬â Whether this is something relatively small or more coveted, having a prize to reflect the achievements will help develop a competitive nature in the students. Having more of a focus than simply points has a great overall benefit on the energy levels in a classroom and the desire to achieve more through the education system. It is, however, still important to keep a balance between a cooperative and a competitive classroom. To see how to do this more effectively you should definitely check out this article. Ã Equalize The Playing Field It is a common misconception that gamification is only suited to extroverts. By introducing the aspects of gamification into quieter more introverted activities you will be able to level the playing field and provide the benefits to the entire class. One of the greatest tools for this is the range of apps available for quieter quizzing. The use of the app is on an individual level but the points or XP can be easily tracked and added to a collective leaderboard. This research is indispensable when you are trying to better understand how to implement gamification for both introverts and extroverts. Ã Common Mistakes To Avoid It is often said that the use of gamification can be potentially harmful. There are several reported reasons for this but it should be noted that the most common cause of gamification failing is due to mistakes made with the implementation of the theory. Here are some of the most common errors made by educators. They are not necessarily made by those new to gamification but they can also develop over time as the original idea becomes stale with the students in the educational system. Focusing on the successful implementation and the maintenance of that focus can really make a difference in the results observed in the classroom. Winning IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t Everything Ã¢â¬â One of the most common errors that educators make is crafting the classroom to be too focused on achieving points. Having students too focused on winning means that the educational value of the tasks will be lost. Ã The reason that this happens is almost always because the stakes are too high or the prizes are too desirable. It is the duty of the teacher to put themselves in the mindset of their student and choose prizes that are desirable enough without them becoming the main focus. This issue might seem contradictory to the push for prizes and points mentioned previously, but it should be considered how exactly this has to be done for your specific class. A good way to avoid this from happening is to keep the focus on: Ã¢â¬Å"Does this result in learning?Ã¢â¬ This will ensure that winning is always secondary to a learning objective. Too Much Reward Ã¢â¬â The concept of gamification is often oversimplified when it is put into place. It is a common belief that it is the achieving of goals that drives the students forward and this means they create systems that awards points or achievements almost arbitrarily. If the success is not meaningful and consistent then the students will quickly lose interest. Students need to feel like they are really progressing whilst they are earning points and getting rewards. Ã At first this can be a very laborious task of continually checking the reward system and keeping to strict rules, but once the students get a hang of the system it will start to regulate itself.Ã Not Integrating The System Ã¢â¬â Whether this is treating gamification as an isolated learning technique or not following up on a natural process, not bringing it fully into the daily schedule means it is usually a waste of time. It should be a solid part of a larger curriculum that gives students a chance to get to know the system and fully benefit from it. Ã This should be balanced when you first introduce this theory into the classroom so that it is not overwhelming. In the end, however, the theory should be a normal part of the overall educational approach.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Critical literary - Essay Example the MagiÃ¢â¬ OÃ¢â¬â¢ Henry primarily deals with the passion of two opposite sexes for each other, at the inner level of it, he leaves a message that is more serious than it sounds on the surface level. It is the message that appeals to the readers to review their own relationship with their female counterpart of the society. For those readers who are not acquainted with some of his other stories like Ã¢â¬Å"Hearts and HandsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"the Romance of a Busy BrokerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"GirlÃ¢â¬ may easily mistake his handling of Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬ between Jim and Della for an anecdote that is devoid of any complex theme. In this regard Rena Korb says, Ã¢â¬Å"The majority of critics then dubbed O. HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s stories facile, anecdotal, superficial, and flippantÃ¢â¬ (1). But these stories fairly play the role of a foil to Ã¢â¬Å"the Gift of the MagiÃ¢â¬ . While reading Ã¢â¬Å"the Gift of the MagiÃ¢â¬ a reader may perceive the amorous bond between Jim and Della as it is. But when one reads Ã¢â¬Å"the Romance of the Busy BrokerÃ¢â¬ , he is confronted with the question what love should be and immediately the answer lies in the reflection of Ã¢â¬Å"the Gift of the MagiÃ¢â¬ that love is as unconditional and spontaneous as Jim-DellaÃ¢â¬â¢s is. Therefore the themes in these stories are comple mentary to each other that integrate into a more holistic view of Henry about the amorous relationship between opposite sexes. When critics comment that Ã¢â¬Å"the Gift of the MagiÃ¢â¬ is nothing more than a mere anecdote, it is the problem of their approach that fails to delve deep into the message of the author. As the formalist critics are exclusively engaged with the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s intention and style, they cannot interpret the message that the author leaves it in his story for his readers. Hence the reader-response approach to HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s stories is more holistic than the formalist approach. In general, critics on the story, Ã¢â¬Å"the Gift of the MagiÃ¢â¬ are of the opinion that his approach to human passion like Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬ is more of the fantasy than of
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Reading response - Assignment Example The book, in many ways, is a summary of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s journey of three decades as an author, an educator and social activist. The dominant themes of the essays featuring in this collection are the red power, the white church, the contradictory worldviews, liberating theology, practices of the state and ancient conventions relevant in the modern world. The author was of the view that the Native American style of life was reliant mainly on visions, whereas the life of the whites was centred chiefly on ideas. The same point of view is upheld in the essays in Ã¢â¬ËFor This LandÃ¢â¬â¢. Deloria, in this book, covers a wide variety of topics relating to religion and spirituality, which range from the protest movement of the Indians to the violation of agreements with the tribal communities in the US. He also talks about the immense struggle put forward by the Indians for the sake of preserving their holy sites and gaining access to the same on their traditional occasions. The author does not deter from mentioning even some seriously controversial issues concerning the federal agencies, museums and curio shops in the US. He candidly reveals issues such as the withholding of the human remnants and funeral offerings of American Indians. The focus of the essays in this book is on the religious facets and associations we find in the lives of human beings. Apparently his writing seems to be distant from ideological contexts and verging entirely on the theoretical framework of physical space. But as the thoughts progress, we realise that the author has been successful in involving our intellectual faculties by insinuating us to rethink our beliefs. He questions our established religious institutions and experiences, reveals all kinds of controversies that have engulfed those and compels us to ponder over our deep-rooted beliefs. Ã¢â¬ËFor This LandÃ¢â¬â¢ is a masterpiece from one of the foremost critics of American history. It presents a unique
Sunday, November 17, 2019
IT technical support Essay External would mean that the company would send you to perhaps a training course which would perhaps cost a bit more then internal training. Internal training would mean that you would train within the company. The amount of training that the IT Technical has done would depend on the organisation hence the better the company the better the IT Technical support will be. Budget A good company with loads of money would be able to employ more technicians which may not be the case for a charity where they are on a low budget where they may only have a few employees. The more employees you would have, the more efficient your company would be which wouldnt be the case for a charity. An example of a company that would have a huge budget would be Microsoft. They have many employees and are able to expand in certain things as in the amount of computers. A charity like Oxfam would not be able to expand which would mean they would only have a few computers and employees. Overall a bigger budget would mean more and better things as in training, computers and more for the IT Technical Support. Type of Organisation. The policies and procedures would depend on the type of organisation as in if it was a company like Microsoft they would have very high and clear policies and procedures. If it was a charity, the policies and procedures would be much more simple meaning they would not have as many targets as a large company would have. This would be because the bigger organisations would have more employees hence they would get through things much faster. This would mean that the IT Technical Support would be depend on the organisation as in Microsoft would have a big team whilst a charity like Oxfam would not. Company Culture This would depend on the employees. A company like Microsoft, Cisco and IBM would have a professional work culture because they would usually work in a team meaning a lot of cooperation would be needed as well as patients. If the staff relationships were good this would mean that they would be very professional meaning they would be able to do their work. This would mean that Microsoft, Cisco, IBM IT Technical Support would be very efficient as in the amount of work completed perhaps because they are company orientated. Work pressure This would depend on the type of company it is. If it is a very big company like Microsoft the work pressure would have very high standards because of all the deadlines that the staffs have to meet. The work pressure of the company would be able to tell whether the staffs are capable of performing the task as in if they can handle it. If they cannot then they would not be needed especially if they work for a company like Microsoft where all the policies and procedures are at a high standard. Overall it would mean that a large company would have a restricted time limit and a charity would have a longer amount of time. This would mean that the IT Technical Support would have to meet the deadlines. User IT expertise This would vary because at Microsoft the user IT expertise would be at a very high standard because they are trained to be very computer literate especially with the training that the company has therefore would depend on the training. For example a charity would not be that focused on the user IT expertise. It would depend if the user is well ne through the right educated meaning that they should have gone through the right procedures which would be linked to the amount of knowledge they have in order to work in a big company. This is needed so that the IT Technical Support knows what they are doing. Other factors Other factors would include Security as in which type of antivirus that the company would use, this would be mainly because of malicious threats also to prevent certain faults. A big company like Microsoft would use an antivirus that cannot be penetrated. A charity may use a normal one such as Norton or one that is better. Fire walls are used in order to stop fraud. Another factor would include the confidentiality; this would consist of the privacy of files that would be restricted to certain staff. The confidentiality would mean the clients files as in their history, Address, Phone number, Date of Birth, account number, Age ECT. This would mean that they would have the data protection act in use where if in breach they would be sued for this. This would keep the IT Technical support on task which would mean that they would not be able to show files or share. Confidentiality is a major thing for a company where they protect certain things from people, it may either be encrypted. Task 3 (M2) Produce appropriate support material that will guide users in relation to a specific area of expertise a) Produce support material that will guide the employees at Cranks Ltd in relation to an appropriate specific area of expertise. This support material can be for one of the following or choose your own. The procedure chosen should not be trivial and the support material should be in depth and cover every aspect of the procedure for everyone concerned Ã Procedure for advising the staff that the Operating System will be getting updated Tuesday 13th January I will be producing support material that will guide the employees at Cranks Ltd in relation to the system getting updated. The support material that I will be providing will be in depth so that the staff will be able to understand it. The support material will be a letter and an email and a meeting will be held so that the staff will be well informed and aware of what is going to happen. A letter will be produced which will be sent to the staff of Cranks Ltd twice, a week before the Operating system gets updated and then two days left to the system getting updated. The email sent to the staff would contain exactly the same information as the letter. A meeting will be held for the IT Technical Support which would insure that the staffs are well prepared. The meeting will be held before the letter is sent out to the staff. The meeting will be a week before the operating system will get updated where an email will be sent to the staff informing them of the meeting. In this meeting I will be telling the staff what is actually going to happen and what needs to get updated. Notifying the employees at the meeting The Operating system will be implemented on the 13th January. The primary reason we are updating the operating system is so that it can perform tasks efficiently and allows you to get through more tasks throughout the day. This operating system features a friendly user interface. The operating system will have everything the previous operating system had but with a couple more features and it works more productively. The Operating system package has been ordered to be sent to us on the 9th January so that everything is all set up for when the engineers come in to install the operating system. The engineers will be coming in on the 13th January 2009 for the whole day so that everything is set up correctly meaning functioning to the standard. The staff will have to make sure that everything is saved which also includes them having a back up file as an added security measurement. The staff will find using this system is no different from the other therefore know training will be needed. The area will be restricted until the engineers have completed the update therefore you will not be able to go into the area. Once the operating system is updated everything will commence as normal on the following day where you would continue on the tasks that you would usually do. The procedure was explained during the meeting but as an extra measurement it will be shown on this letter which will be sent to the staff twice. Letter Dear IT Technical Support Staff I am producing this letter as a guide to you in relation to the system getting updated on Tuesday 13th January 2009 for the whole day. This letter will consist of the procedure that will have to be taken before the Operating system will get updated. Procedure The Operating system will be implemented on the 13th January. The primary reason we are updating the operating system is so that it can perform tasks efficiently and allows you to get through more tasks throughout the day. This operating system features a friendly user interface. The operating system will have everything the previous operating system had but with a couple more features and it works more productively. The Operating system package has been ordered to be sent to us on the 9th January so that everything is all set up for when the engineers come in to install the operating system. The engineers will be coming in on the 13th January 2009 for the whole day so that everything is set up correctly meaning functioning to the standard. The staff will have to make sure that everything is saved which also includes them having a back up file as an added security measurement. The staff will find using this system is no different from the other therefore know training will be needed. The area will be restricted until the engineers have completed the update therefore you will not be able to go into the area. Once the operating system is updated everything will commence as normal on the following day where you would continue on the tasks that you would usually do. Yours sincerely A. Gooman Azhar Gooman Email Dear IT Technical Support Staff I am producing this email as a guide to you in relation to the system getting updated on Tuesday 13th January 2009 for the whole day. This email will consist of what is happening and when also the procedure that will have to be taken before the Operating system will get updated. Procedure The Operating system will be implemented on the 13th January. The primary reason we are updating the operating system is so that it can perform tasks efficiently and allows you to get through more tasks throughout the day. This operating system features a friendly user interface. The operating system will have everything the previous operating system had but with a couple more features and it works more productively. The Operating system package has been ordered to be sent to us on the 9th January so that everything is all set up for when the engineers come in to install the operating system. The engineers will be coming in on the 13th January 2009 for the whole day so that everything is set up correctly meaning functioning to the standard. The staff will have to make sure that everything is saved which also includes them having a back up file as an added security measurement. The staff will find using this system is no different from the other therefore know training will be needed. The area will be restricted until the engineers have completed the update therefore you will not be able to go into the area. Once the operating system is updated everything will commence as normal on the following day where you would continue on the tasks that you would usually do. Yours sincerely A. Gooman Azhar Gooman Task 4 (M3) Explain the advantages and disadvantages to users and organisations of outsourcing the provision of technical support. Cranks Ltd are considering outsourcing their IT technical support. This is to be a confidential report as this matter is very sensitive as if they outsource the Technical Support the staff in that area would be redeployed (employed elsewhere) or made redundant. a) Explain the advantages and disadvantages for the staff at Cranks Ltd of outsourcing IT technical support. There are many advantages for the staff at Cranks Ltd of outsourcing IT technical support Advantages: Outsourcing the staff would allow the business to be able to save on expenses if the IT Technical Support has outsourced such as certain equipment, software and maintenance of which the IT technical support would deal with. Once you have outsourced IT technical support there would be enough time to complete other tasks of yours. The technical support would have very good user IT expertise meaning that they are very knowledgeable in solving problems therefore would be able to work professionally especially in a team or as an individual. The company itself would have to pay a sum of money for outsourcing but once paid there will be no other expense as in equipment, software and more. Another advantage would be that the customer satisfaction would be improved drastically this is because of the efficiency that the technical support performs at. If outsourced abroad this would mean that they would learn the companys culture and perhaps would have the ability to learn different languages. One of the most major disadvantages is that you will not have that much control over what happens once outsourced therefore things could change as in your first purpose of outsourcing the IT technical support, this would perhaps cause an interruption as in to the clients if the task is out of sight once outsourced. The clients will then end up leaving because of the quality of service. If you wanted to promote a technician you wouldnt be able to because there would be none at the company At times there may be a communication barrier between you and the selected vendor therefore may become a slow process and wouldnt be that efficient. The chosen vendors may have other plans to the selected outsourced department in this case would be the IT Technical support. b) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT technical support for the Cranks Ltd Organisation (Business) Advantages Outsourcing the business would be a great way of helping it to grow in reputation which would then lead onto more clients. Once done the company would be able to have time on focusing on different factors which would also help it grow. The expenses would be reduced. The company would become very efficient meaning that it would be on task. The business would be able to save on expenses such as certain equipment, software and maintenance. Outsourcing the business would lead to an increase in quality which would mean that the reputation would increase which then makes the company money and perhaps even a bit of profit from the work produced. Another advantage would be that if outsourced abroad to somewhere like India, there would be a time zone difference as in night there and day here this would mean that the work would be done with much efficiency. lastly you would be handing most of the responsibility to the outsourced Disadvantages: There are many disadvantages towards outsourcing IT technical support for Cranks Ltd Organisation. One of them would be that there would be hidden costs which would mean that it would be expensive because you would be signing a contract and if abroad there would be more complications towards the cost. At times things could go wrong as in you would have to do a lot of research before outsourcing, this would mean choosing a good partner so that there are no complications as in deliveries and other factors. One of the major disadvantages of this would be that once the business has outsourced the confidential data would be in risk of exposure. Once the company has outsourced the employees are at risk of losing their jobs. The quality of the company might not be as it was because of the change and perhaps the way it will be managed and organised would be different. An outsourced company would perhaps lead away from customer focus this is because you will be more focused on the needs of other things. There may be a communication barrier. Lastly you will not have any control over the management. Lastly the vendor may be contracted to a multiple amount of other businesses therefore be more interested in the others. BIBLIOGRAPGHY http://jobs. lovetoknow. com/Pros_and_Cons_of_Outsourcing http://www. flatworldsolutions. com/articles/advantages-disadvantages-outsourcing. php http://ezinearticles. com/? The-Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-Outsourcingid=1401755 http://www. ipmaxx. com/article. aspx? id=203958 http://cathlawson. com/2008/02/26/the-pros-and-cons-of-outsourcing/ http://www. bizhelp24. com/small-business-portal/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-small-business-outsourcing-3. html.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Living Wills, sometimes called Advanced Directives, are legal documents accepted in all 50 states. They clearly define a personÃ¢â¬â¢s wish to decline life-support or medical treatment in certain circumstances, usually when death is imminent. Generally, a living will takes effect when a person becomes terminally ill, permanently unconscious or conscious with irreversible brain damage. A living will also allows a person to state with particularity the forms of treatment are wanted and not wanted. For example, if a one does not want artificial life support, then sign the living will stating that desire. It is also important to discuss your beliefs and wishes with you family, spouse and other people whose opinions you respect, such as clergy, physicians, attorney or an accountant. Living wills are recognized in every state, but each state has different requirements. If someone is interested in making a living will, contact an expert in the state that you live in, such as a hospital, local agency on aging or local bar association. To help ensure that the living will be honored, give copies to family members, physicians, lawyer and other involved in caring for the personÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare. Federal law now requires most health care facilities (hospitals, nursing homes, HMOs and home health agencies) to ask patients if they have a living will or would like to complete one. Can Medical Care Legally Be Stopped If There Is NO Living Will? When there is no written document, a spouse or close family member may still request that treatment be withheld if the patient cannot do so, but the request could be denied. The way states and health care providers handle such cases varies widely. Typically, a doctor or hospital representative will meet with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s family to discuss what that personÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes were. In some cases a health care facility may want to withhold or provide life support against a familyÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes. In some cases a formal hearing may be held to determine how to proceed. How To Make A Living Will The rules for preparing a living will vary from state. Some states require that the document be signed with the same formalities required for execution of a will, but many state recognize the effectiveness of more informal declarations. Generally a living will: Should Be in Writing. Should Be Signed and Dated. Should Be Signed Voluntarily Should State Sp... ...tain types of treatment in various health-care situations. Some of the options are explained below: DNR Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Do Not ResuscitateÃ¢â¬ order (DNR) simply states that if you are deemed by a physician to be terminally ill, you do not wish to receive cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if your heart stops beating or you stop breathing. You feel that CPR will be futile or will serve to only prolong your life. Surgery Ã¢â¬â If you become terminally ill, you may not wish to have surgery, es-pecially if that surgery is elective or if it life-prolonging in the case of imminent death. For example, a terminal cancer patient may not wish to have minor surgery, such as a tonsillectomy if they have tonsillitis. If you are writing your own will, you may want to make your wishes regarding surgery case specific, you have the ability to state what YOU want. Pain Medication. A living will should address the types of medication you wish to have administered and under what circumstances. Respirators Ã¢â¬â Respirators are a means of artificial respiration for patients who cannot breathe on their own.. If you disagree with the means or Ã¢â¬Å"artificialÃ¢â¬ medical treatments, these should be address in the living will.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The implementation of a program which makes health care accessible is a goal of any society. In line with this goal, the establishment of community health nursing was formed. This provided better opportunities for people to acquire the right health care assistance for each of their concerns. There were some factors that may be attributed in the formation of a health nursing. These influenced the creation of the program which intended to provide resolutions for problems that have long been encountered. The first source of influence may be justified even before the 19th century Europe. In the past, family members who were sick were just attended by female members of the family and were not able to access full health care from a professional or a specialist (Allender, 2004). One of the great problems which were encountered by societies was the minimal opportunity for ordinary people to go to a medical specialist. Almost always the case, only those who have the economic capability were able to avail these types of services. Add to that the seemingly underdeveloped infrastructures back then. This paved the way for an idea to bring at least satellite health care units in small communities to service the general public. One more attribute which lead to the development of community health care can be pointed out to religious charities. The monks in Florence, Italy had committed a historical health care service for those who encountered accidents. They even provided first aid solutions for people who needed their help even on a 24 hour basis. As a matter of fact, these religious figures even provided the necessary health care for various pilgrims to some of the considered holy lands based on religious beliefs. During the medieval times, there have also been great developments in community based health services. There was a time when a law catering to the poor of England was passed in 1601. This rule designated the instructions for health specialists to render their services to the poor who did not have any means of availing health care. Since the governing sector is centralized in the royal institution, it was really easy to disseminate the services to identifiable poor communities in the country. Another historic event took place in France when the Friendly Visitor Volunteers was formed. In 17th century France, there was a great deal in re-establishing the economy. This prompted the organization to render public health services by sending the service directly to the homes of the poor and disabled. The main funding process of the organization was initiated by wealthy women individuals of the society who cared for the welfare of the general public. The community health nursing was definitely a very good approach in caring for the needy and unfortunate. However, by the time the Industrial Revolution hit Europe and America, the group of these community based health units were greatly reduced. This paved the way for what the present health care structure societies have today. Hospitals and health centers were established even in bigger units and concentrated near urban areas. This was in direct contrast to the former approach of delegating specific health units among communities. Even though the extent of community health nursing is already reduced, newer counterparts in modern society today still has the same principle. Home nursing can be availed today via appointments with doctors and nurses. There are also some programs among todayÃ¢â¬â¢s hospitals which can provide an extended health care service at home based on agreements. Moreover, the establishment of home care nursing centers provides at least a refuge for patients outside of hospitals. The modern day health professionals are partnering directly with individuals who want to improve their communities in promoting optimum health care (Richmond Health, 2001).
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The learner can: 1. Explain what is meant by the term Ã¢â¬ËdementiaÃ¢â¬â¢ 2. Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia 3. Explain why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia. Outcome 2 Understand key features of the theoretical models of dementia The learner can: 1. Outline the medical model of dementia 2. Outline the social model of dementia 3. Explain why dementia should be viewed as a disability. Outcome 3 Know the most common types of dementia and their causes The learner can: 1. List the most common causes of dementia 2. Describe the likely signs and symptoms of the most common causes of dementia 3. Outline the risk factors for the most common causes of dementia 4. Identify prevalence rates for different types of dementia. Outcome 4 Understand factors relating to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of dementia The learner can: 1. Describe how different individuals may experience living with dementia depending on age, type of dementia, and level of ability and disability 2. Outline the impact that the attitudes and behaviours of others may have on an individual with dementia. SUGGESTED GUIDANCE ANSWERS OUTCOME 1 For a start what does dementia mean? Very simply for such a complex area, it is an illness of the brain. What is the difference between AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s and dementia? The word dementia is an umbrella term, which covers all the various dementias including AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is the one widely recognized, and accounts for about sixty per cent, of all the dementias. Dementia is a term that is used to describe a collection of symptoms including memory loss, problems with reasoning and communication skills, and a reduction in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and skills in carrying out daily activities such as washing, dressing, cooking and caring for self. Memory loss Ã¢â¬â this can be one of the first symptoms that people notice. The observations people report include Ã¢â¬â noticing their loved ones forgetting things that have happened earlier in the day, getting confused about messages and who people are, getting lost whilst out and about, repeating themselves, and appearing not to be paying attention or following conversations. Problems with communication Ã¢â¬â Some people experience problems with expressing themselves, talking and understanding things. They get confused about words and might use the wrong words for common things and mix words up. Reading and understanding written text can become problematic. There are a number of different types of dementia the most common being AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, vascular dementia, Fronto temporal dementia and Dementia with Lewy bodies. Some people get diagnosed as having mixed dementia; this is when the presentation shows the person to have elements of more than one type of dementia. Dementia is a progressive condition, which means the symptoms will gradually get worse. This progression will vary from person to person and each person will experience dementia in a different way. Although the person will have some of the above symptoms, the degree to which they affect an individual will vary and not all people will have all of these symptoms. 2. Areas of the brain affected by dementia are shown in the diagram below: [pic] The temporal lobe of the brain if affected by dementia will mean the sufferer will Ã¢â¬ËforgetÃ¢â¬â¢ every day functions, and how to perform them, relatives names and faces, their Ã¢â¬ËpastÃ¢â¬â¢ life, and friends they have known for years. Simple tasks that they used to perform with ease, become difficult to perform, and they have to Ã¢â¬ËlearnÃ¢â¬â¢ how to do them again. Sufferers can forget conversations and instructions, and need to be reminded on a regular basis, and given Ã¢â¬ËpromptsÃ¢â¬â¢ to remind them the topic of conversation, or what they are supposed be doing next for example. The frontal lobe of the brain if affected by dementia can mean that the sufferer is Ã¢â¬ËunawareÃ¢â¬â¢ that their behaviour is unacceptable, or not the Ã¢â¬ËnormÃ¢â¬â¢. The sufferer can become agitated very quickly, and suffer from depression. They may be unaware of apparent dangers, and unable to recognise what is Ã¢â¬ËacceptableÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËunacceptableÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviours. They may have violent outbursts, and exhibit Ã¢â¬ËthreateningÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour to others. The parietal lobe of the brain if affected by dementia affects language skills. This means that communication skills could be reduced. The person may not be able to Ã¢â¬ËfindÃ¢â¬â¢ the appropriate words to use, or may not understand questions asked of them. They may not relate Ã¢â¬ËwordsÃ¢â¬â¢ to the correct Ã¢â¬ËobjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ for instance if they pick up a cup, but call it a Ã¢â¬ËpotÃ¢â¬â¢. 3. Depression, memory problems, and delirium may be mistaken for dementia because these are often the onset symptoms of dementia, and therefore may be mistaken for the start of dementia in the elderly. Some symptoms of dementia are similar to symptoms of some mental health conditions. It is important that a comprehensive assessment is carried out if service users start to display symptoms such as confusion, poor memory or apathy. These could be indicators of dementia, but they could also be symptoms of depression, or other mental health conditions. OUTCOME 2 1. The medical model of dementia is of mental decline. This approach makes it hard to focus on maximising a personÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and improving their quality of life. Putting physical problems and emotional states down to brain damage, the medical model overlooks the social world of people with dementia, and concentrates on the illness, rather than the person. 2. The social model of dementia sees the Ã¢â¬ËpersonÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than the illness or disease. It puts the focus on what a person Ã¢â¬Ëcan doÃ¢â¬â¢, (positives), instead of focussing on what the person can no longer do (negatives). The social model looks at ways to improve the quality of life, and experiences of dementia, and provide techniques for the dementia sufferer, to live a fulfilling and rewarding life. The social model recognises and includes the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s social, recreational, spiritual needs, instead of just their medical or personal care needs.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
5 Famous People Who Found Success Despite Failures Failure and success are two sides of the same coin. In order to succeed, you must fail. But how do we overcome the negative mindset that we may developÃ as a result of failing more than once? A lot of people get back up after failing once, but getting back up after failing 10 or 11 times is the real challenge. We can find inspiration from some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most notable figures. Here are 5 successful people who found success despite their failures:Source [demilked.com]
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
How to Use Footnotes in Research Papers A footnote is a reference, explanation, or comment1 placed below the main text on a printed page. Footnotes are identified in the text by a numeralÃ or aÃ symbol.Ã Ã In research papers and reports, footnotes commonly acknowledge the sources of facts and quotations that appear in the text. Footnotes are the mark of a scholar, says Bryan A. Garner. Overabundant, overflowing footnotes are the mark of an insecure scholar - often one who gets lost in the byways of analysis and who wants to show off (Garners Modern American Usage, 2009). Examples and Observations Footnotes: vices. In a work containing many long footnotes, it may be difficult to fit them onto the pages they pertain to, especially in an illustrated work.Content footnotesÃ supplement or simplify substantive information in the text; they should not include complicated, irrelevant, or nonessential information...Copyright permission footnotesÃ acknowledge the source of lengthy quotations, scale and test items, and figures and tables that have been reprinted or adapted.Content FootnotesWhat, after all, is aÃ content footnoteÃ but material that one is either too lazy to integrate into the text or too reverent to discard? Reading a piece of prose that constantly dissolves into extended footnotes is profoundly disheartening. Hence my rule of thumb for footnotes is exactly the same as that forÃ parentheses. One should regard them as symbols of failure. I hardlyÃ need to add that in this vale of tears failure is sometimes unavoidable.Footnote FormsAll notes have the same gene ral form:1. Adrian Johns. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 623.If you cite the same text again, you can shorten subsequent notes:5. Johns. Nature of the Book, 384-85. The Disadvantages of FootnotesMore than one recent critic has pointed out that footnotes interrupt a narrative. References detract from the illusion of veracity and immediacy . . . . (Noel Coward made the same point more memorably when he remarked that having to read a footnote resembles having to go downstairs to answer the door while in the midst of making love.)Belloc on Footnotes[L]et a man put his foot-notes in very small print indeed at the end of a volume, and, if necessary, let him give specimens rather than a complete list. For instance, let a man who writes history as it should be written - with all the physical details in evidence, the weather, the dress, colors, everything - write on for the pleasure of his reader and not for his critic. But let him take sections here and there, and in an appendix show the critic how it is being done. Let him keep his notes and challenge criticism. I think he will be secure. He will not be secure from the anger of those who cannot write clearly, let alone vividly, and who have never in their lives been able to resurrect the past, but he will be secure from their destructive effect. The Lighter Side of FootnotesA footnote is like running downstairsÃ to answer the doorbell on your wedding night. 1 The footnote has figured prominently in the fictions of such leading contemporary novelists as Nicholson Baker2, David Foster Wallace3, and Dave Eggers. These writers have largely revived the digressive function of the footnote.(L. Douglas and A. George, Sense and Nonsensibility: Lampoons of Learning and Literature. Simon and Schuster, 2004) 2 [T]he great scholarly or anecdotal footnotes of Lecky, Gibbon, or Boswell, written by the author of the book himself to supplement, or even correct over several later editions, what he says in the primary text, are reassurances that the pursuit of truth doesnt have clear outer boundaries: it doesnt end with the book; restatement and self-disagreement and the enveloping sea of referenced authorities all continue. Footnotes are the finer-suckered surfaces that allow tentacular paragraphs to hold fast to the wider reality of the library.(Nicholson Baker, The Mezzanine. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1988) 3 One of the odd pleasures in reading the work of the late David Foster Wallace is the opportunity to escape from the main text to explore epic footnotes, always rendered at the bottoms of pages in thickets of tiny type.(Roy Peter Clark, The Glamour of Grammar. Little, Brown, 2010) Sources Hilaire Belloc,Ã On, 1923Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, 2003Anthony Grafton,Ã The Footnote: A Curious History. Harvard University Press, 1999.Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2010.Paul Robinson, The Philosophy of Punctuation.Ã Opera, Sex, and Other Vital Matters. University of Chicago Press, 2002.Kate Turabian,Ã A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed. University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Cybercrime - Essay Example or illustrates also that the capital flight and financial frauds have increased substantially during the period from 1965 to 2010, from 49 billion to 1,043 billion USD, respectively. However, it is becoming more difficult to estimate the development of the amount of financial means of transnational crime over time (Schneider 2013, 700). Further the author describes the most common methods of money laundering and identifies twenty destination countries that have the largest amount of laundered money among which the leaders are the United States, the Cayman Islands and the Russian Federation. Schneider analyzes the progress of money laundering activities in relation to the proceeds of cybercrime. Schneider (2013, 692) provides estimates of the various cost components of genuine cybercrime, among which are given estimates for online banking fraud (including: phishing, malware (consumers), malware (businesses), bank tech. countermeasures), as well as fake antivirus, copyright-infringing software, copyright-infringing music, patent-infringing pharma, stranded traveler scam, fake escrow scam, and advance-fee fraud. According to the estimates during the period 2007-2010, the total costs of genuine cybercrime made up $3,457million (Schneider 2013). In addition to the estimates of genuine cybercrime, the author provides estimates of costs incurred by transitional cybercrime, which includes the following: online payment card fraud; offline payment card fraud; indirect costs of payment fraud; loss of confidence (both consumers and merchants) (Schneider 2013). The total costs of transitional cybercrime made up $44,200million. Moreover, there are even provided the costs of cybercriminal infrastructure, which include: expenditure on antivirus, ISP cleanup expenditures, cost to industry of patching; cost to users of cleanup; defense costs of firms; and expenditure on law enforcement (Schneider 2013). The total costs of cybercriminal infrastructure made up $24,840 million. And
Friday, November 1, 2019
A response to the reading - Essay Example As the story starts, the reader cannot discern the intention of the author and one might take offence with the language that sounds discriminatory to one of the races in the world. However, the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s intention is to highlight the issue of self-preservation in the world and draw attention to a raceÃ¢â¬â¢s view of another race. While doing this, the author managers to use humor in a distinctive way that makes the reader enthusiastic. All along, the author uses themes and leaves the reader with questions regarding their worldview on both diminutive and abstract aspects of life. Through the interior lives of the characters in the story, the author manages to illustrate the differences between world viewpoints that were dominant in a culture and their fundamental difference with the lives of those affected. Concisely, the author successfully illustrates the meaning of being human in an audacious and prudent approach. In this case, the story delivers a mix of the interaction of past mistakes, successes, new beginnings, and the regrets that individuals live by as the innermost being defines their