Friday, May 31, 2019

Marcus Brutus as Tragic Hero in Shakespeares Julius Caesar Essays

Marcus Brutus as Tragic Hero in Shakespeares Julius Caesar In soldieryy stories there is a tragic hero. The hero finds out most himself and the people around him in the story. In Shakespeares play, Julius Caesar, Marcus Brutus is the tragic hero. The play Julius Caesar is about politics and betrayal in antediluvian Rome. Brutus is part of the senate, which is below Caesar, who is soon to be crowned. The senate wants to overthrow Caesar to save Rome. To do this the senate has to get Brutus on their side and help them kill Caesar. Shakespeare portrays Marcus Brutus as a in effect(p) naive about the character of men. Marcus Brutus fits Aristotles exposition of a tragic hero in a tragedy, in which is he is not good nor evil, is a man of noble status, and suffers from tragic flaws that brings about his demise. angiotensin converting enzyme way that Brutus fits into Aristotles definition of a tragic hero is that he is neither entirely good nor evil. Marcus Brutus alway s shows his committal to Caesar, even though he dislikes him. He would not think of betraying Caesar if Cassius had not pers... Marcus Brutus as Tragic Hero in Shakespeares Julius Caesar EssaysMarcus Brutus as Tragic Hero in Shakespeares Julius Caesar In many stories there is a tragic hero. The hero finds out about himself and the people around him in the story. In Shakespeares play, Julius Caesar, Marcus Brutus is the tragic hero. The play Julius Caesar is about politics and betrayal in ancient Rome. Brutus is part of the senate, which is below Caesar, who is soon to be crowned. The senate wants to overthrow Caesar to save Rome. To do this the senate has to get Brutus on their side and help them kill Caesar. Shakespeare portrays Marcus Brutus as a honorable naive about the character of men. Marcus Brutus fits Aristotles definition of a tragic hero in a tragedy, in which is he is not good nor evil, is a man of noble status, and suffers from tragic flaws that brings about his demise. One way that Brutus fits into Aristotles definition of a tragic hero is that he is neither entirely good nor evil. Marcus Brutus always shows his loyalty to Caesar, even though he dislikes him. He would not think of betraying Caesar if Cassius had not pers...

Thursday, May 30, 2019

France :: essays research papers fc

Movement A. economical DescriptionCompared to other countries, Frances economy is the fourth largest in the world. France is a very industrialized nation, withal it has kept some of the cultural characteristics that contribute to its old-world charm. The economy is exceptionally diversified (Economic Structure, 1). It produces everything from aircrafts to pharmaceuticals.1. Primary Economic ActivitiesAgriculture is Frances of import primary economic activity. The agriculture and agro-food industries make up about 6% of the gross domestic product which is the total sum of everything in the economy (Economic Structure, 1). However, agriculture is about the only bountiful natural resource in France. While France has limited amounts of coal, uranium, and other materials that could be mined, it is very hard to demoralise to those places because they are so deep in the ground and they are unusable in steel production. France also produces hydroelectric energy but it can not produce eno ugh to meet the entire countrys needs (Natural Resources, 1).2. Secondary Economic ActivitiesFrance engages in quite a few lower-ranking economic activities such as manufacturing, machinery and transport equipment production, aircraft production, and pharmaceutical items. This part of the economy makes up about 26% of Frances gross domestic product and 25% of its labor force (CIA 2001, 1). Manufacturing plays the largest role out of all of the secondary economic activities with a contribution of 16% to the gross domestic product. Behind it are the locution and energy generation companies which account for 4% and 3% of the gross domestic product (Economic Structure, 1).Tertiary Economic ActivitesServices are a large part of the composition of Frances gross domestic product. It accounts for 70.6% of the GDP and a whopping 71% of the work force (CIA 2001. 1). Tourism has a push-down stack to do with the very large chunk services take up in Frances gross domestic product. People make their way to France for galore(postnominal) different reasons. Some people come for the great food, wines, and pastries. Others come for the beautiful scenery of the French Riviera, Eiffel Tower, and fun festivals such as the gypsy festival which is cognise for its extravagant singing and dancing. Others come for art and entertainment which they can take in at any one of Frances many museums such as the Louvre. The Cannes Film Festival is another event that makes France an attractive destination for those who love the arts. The festival brings film stars together from all over the world to promote their newborn summer movies.

Abortion Economics 101 :: Argumentative Persuasive Topics

Abortion Economics 101 There was a constant debate about the blessing ratings for President Bill Clinton in the midst of the sex scandal. At times the ratings were higher than even before news of the scandal broke. Everyone agreed that the high ratings were cogitate to the strong economy. Herein lies the truth. After all, Americas strong economy wasnt built on presidential scandals, but on abortion. The greatest economic dismay right is the possibility of ending abortion, and the champions of abortion happen to be President Bill Clinton and the Democratic Party One should recall that the economy of the pre-Civil War southwestern was built on the backs of slaves. They feared abolition, even to the point of going to war, because their whole economy would collapse without slavery. They certainly would not be able to keep the same regulation of living. Today we have a similar situation. The present economy has been built on the backs of dead babies and those who support abortion fear that its abolition will entertain that they will not be able to keep the same standard of living that they have grown accustomed to. Is it fair for me to make this dramatic offer? Consider the following and decide for yourself. Imagine a family with two children, one in 7th grade and one in 10th. Mom and Dad both work, he earns 60% of their income and she earns 40 %. Mom becomes pregnant. The first issue is whether she can or will continue to work after the baby is born. If she quits, this means a 40 % cut in income right off the top. Even if she can continue to work, now there are five people to support sort of of four three to send to college instead of two and a child living at home for eighteen more years instead of five. now consider the nation as a whole. In the last 25 years we have killed one-third of all babies before they were born. Without abortion, whatever resources and income we have as a nation would have to be spread around over 35 million more citizens no t to mention the babies the 16- to 25-year-old women would have had by now. venture of the added cost for the programs being touted now by the president in education, day care, health care, energy usage, etc.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Online Dating Essay -- Internet Cyberspace Technology Essays

Online Dating The Internet has always seemed like a completely separate world, very diametrical from reality. thither seemed to be so many endless possibilities. One is the new online dating craze, which has caught my attention a number of times. One rainy afternoon, curled up in a blanket at my computer chair, I decided to investigate it. I learned that as many of the baby-boomers start to become widowed or divorced, many are looking for mates, along with many others who are looking for companionship. With the new Internet-Age, many of these individuals turn to their computer to find someone. Online relationships are a growing phenomenon in the United States as well as internationally. After doing some research I could not develop an opinion on how I entangle about this new trend. I found a group of specialists who had devoted some researching to it and I invited them over for dinner to find what their opinions were and why. I wanted precisely the best, the most opinionated, and the most interested in the topic to come and join me for dinner. I wanted to ignite a conversation that would involve many different views about the subject. I decided on three concourse to invite to my feast. First, I chose Robin Eisner, who works for ABC, and has studied the effects of spending time on the Internet. Next, I chose Laura Koss-Feder, who had interviewed several online couples and understands some of the positive and negative attributes of online dating. I also invited Erica D. Rowell for her knowledge and the studies she has done on online dating. About a week before they all came to dinner, I began to plan what I would make. After having talked to each of them several times on the telephone, I could tell they may de... them up on, but they oft do not develop into anything. They are a great deal surrounded by married couples and may not know a lot of single people, so dating can be very difficult. In their loneliness, they tu rn to the Internet for companionship. Many may go just to look for a friend, but often they might end up meeting someone they want to date (par. 3). I think this is great for older people since they are often wiser so they know who to trust and are more careful when disclosing information to people online. They know they cannot trust just anybody. Younger people, who have not dated much or have not experienced true love, might fall for the words of another online, and this cold lead to disastrous effects. I would not suggest anybody my age to date online, but for some older people I think it might be a great way to meet people as long as they are careful.

Dickinson and Her religion :: essays research papers fc

Dickinson and her ReligionEmily Dickinson was one of the greatest woman poets. She left us with numerous works that show us her secluded world. Like other major artists of nineteenth-century American introspection such as Emerson, Thoreau, and Melville, Dickinson makes poetic use of her vacillations between query and faith. The style of her first efforts was fairly conventional, but after years of practice she began to give room for experiments. Often written in the meter of hymns, her poems dealt not simply with issues of death, faith and immortality, but with nature, domesticity, and the power and limits of language.Dickinsons Christian education bear upon her profoundly, and her desire for a human intuitive faith motivates and enlivens her poetry. Yet what she has faith in tends to be left undefined because she assumes that it is unknowable. There are many unkn avouch subjects in her poetry among them Death and the afterlife, God, nature, artistic and poetic inspiration, ones own mind, and other human beings. Dickinson was educated in a traditionally Protestant, provincial community and in a religious conservative schools and churches in Amherst and South Hadley. This affected Dickinson as a poet of religious concern, stimulating her to opposition as well as reverence. The Calvinist God she was taught to worship was an arbitrary God of absolute power. She struggles prodigiously in her writing against such an image of God, but also invokes it normally. Emily Dickinsons imagination is dynamic partly because she thinks of her mental world as always in flux and prefers not to adhere for long to any preconceived religious of philosophical doctrine. At different times she advances opposed positions on such exchange questions as the goodness of God, the reality of heaven, or the presence of the divine in nature. As a child of her culture, the fixed positions of her local Calvinism are inscribed in her mind and heart, while at the same time she distrusts them a nd seeks an alternative faith that will be truer to her moral conceptions. Since she takes different positions on religious questions, it has proved problematical for commentators to summarize her religious perspective. At the start of her career she assembles her poems in fascicles and sets, thus giving them a separate existence as poems, while later she experiments progressively with a style of letter writing in which the border between verse and prose tends to disappear, and she writes poetically wherever she wants to (Martin).

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Essay --

In the last couple of years there has been increasing sum up of American soldiers being relived from active duty, being sent back to their family and friends. As these men and woman return from war they struggle to reintegrate into their civilian lives. such strains as Post Traumatic stress disorder and very few job opportunities pose a problem. Eddie Ray Routh a former solider had many strains in his life, which eventually lead him to murder American hero Chris Kyle and Chad Littlefield. Using criminologist Robert Agnews General Strain Theory, I will explain the motives behind these murders. reason navy seal Chris Kyle was known as, one of Americas deadliest force snipers (Fernandez & Schwirtz, 2013). Mr. Kyle earned his reputation in Iraq fighting the war on terror putting to death an estimated 150 Iraqi insurgents. Throughout his time as navy seal he earned two silver stars and five bronze stars for acts of valor. Once Mr. Kyle retired from the military he wrote a book calle d the, American sniper the Autobiography of the most lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History. This c...

Essay --

In the last couple of years there has been increasing amount of American soldiers being relived from active duty, being sent tolerate to their family and friends. As these men and woman return from war they struggle to reintegrate into their civilian lives. Such strains as Post Traumatic stress disorder and rattling few job opportunities pose a problem. Eddie Ray Routh a former solider had many strains in his life, which eventually lead him to murder American hero Chris Kyle and Chad Littlefield. development criminologist Robert Agnews General Strain Theory, I will explain the motives behind these murders. Former naval forces seal Chris Kyle was known as, one of Americas deadliest military snipers (Fernandez & Schwirtz, 2013). Mr. Kyle earned his reputation in Iraq fighting the war on terror killing an estimated 150 Iraqi insurgents. Throughout his time as navy seal he earned two silver stars and five bronze stars for acts of valor. Once Mr. Kyle retired from the military he wr ote a book called the, American sniper the Autobiography of the intimately lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History. This c...

Monday, May 27, 2019

Compare and Contrast Texting vs Calling Essay

What would we do without cell phones? Have you ever tried to leave your phone at home just to see how a lot its really needed in your everyday life? I have and its a lot harder than you think. Technology has grown so overmuch in the past ten years then you would ever know. From little black and white flip phones to tablets with apps, games, music and pretty much anything you could ever ask just in the palm of your hand. In 1973 the first cell phone was invented, and it took twenty-two years after that, 1995, to invent schoolbook messaging. Now it seems as though text messaging is among the most popular way of communication.Although texting and phone crabs aim to accomplish the same task, they both have their differences. Texting mickle be quick and easy, saves you term and battery life and lastly, it keeps all conversations private from the public. Calling makes conversations feel to a greater extent personal and professional, takes less prison term to explain what needs to b e done and saves on your monthly bill. Everyday nearone new is signing up for cell phone services. Whether it be At&t, Sprint, Verizon, US cellular, and the list goes on, we argon dealt with the decision of what is more cardinal transactions or data plan.Minutes are the allowed time per month to receive incoming and outgoing covers. Whereas, Data plan is the allowed text messages and moving-picture shows that bay window be sent. Nowadays most cell phone plans come with infinite text and call minutes due to high amounts of each being displace each month. Texting is the newest and coolest thing to do among young adults. Texting allows you to say what you have to say without carrying on a long conversation. It saves you time and battery life. We all know how important it can be to save battery life when there is no sproutr around or if out in public with nowhere to charge it.Texting can help with explaining something to a friend about a cute shirt you see while shopping. Easy as one, two, three, take a picture hit forward in a text message then hit send. They will be able to see it as soon as the message is delivered. Also, texting can save you from that embarrassing mummyent in public when having a private conversation about yourself or someone you know. With texting there are advantages, but they also come with disadvantages. Texting can be faster and get to the point, but, when you enter in a no service area your message wint get delivered at that direct moment.Could take a few hours before the recipient receives it. Which could be a disadvantage to both duty and texting. elevator car correct is a feature on your phone that changes words in your sentences making them different from what you meant. Therefore, could be the cause to a message being misinterpreted by the receiver and take it the wrong way then it was intended to be understood. Causing more trouble than it should have. A big problem around the orbit today is the distraction with tex ting and driving, causing you to take your eyes and attention off the road.Hearing a voice rather than seeing a text can make a phone conversation feel more personal and make an important call have a professional touch to it. If you are going to be late for a job or professional event it is always better to call rather than text. One feature with call phones, is when calling and the other end does not answer you are able to leave a voice mail to what you were calling about. Calling takes less time to explain what you are doing and what needs to be done. Therefore having a longer conversation in a less amount of time.Another advantage to calling is getting the quick response to a question you may have rather than wait on a response. The main advantage would be unlimited minutes for incoming and outgoing calls that could help save on your monthly statement bill. If youre on a family plan this could definitely be a plus especially if you have a big family. Have you ever had to be put o n hold by the cable company, for example, and you waited ten minutes for a representative to pick up, and that moment you are waiting for the solution and beep, beep, beep the call was dropped.Nothing can be more annoying than having to call back and start all over, worried it will happen again. Having no service, just like when texting, and a call is needing to be made can cause anger/frustration in a person. Driving while talking on the phone can be just as distracting as texting, having only(prenominal) one hand on the wheel engaged in your conversation can cause distractions to paying attention to other drivers around you. In some tates talking on a cell phone while driving can get you a ticket and fined. Texting VS Calling can only be judged by each individuals experience and preference. A teenager will most likely choose texting, to avoid awkward phone conversations, whereas, an old fashioned mom or dad would choose to call or vice versa, everyone is entitled to their own opi nion. Personally I enjoy using both, I will text when bored and want to prolong a conversation, and call if I need a quick and easy response.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Mcdonald’s: Ansoff’s Matrix

The Ansoffs matrix enables businesses to look at their products and trades and to think of admit strategies for their business. It offers strategic choices facing managers in order to achieve their objectives. McDonalds Corp. , a leading global fast food chain, which offers sandwiches and sides (cookies/chips) and drinks (juice, water, soda) like its competitor Subway, is the company to be analyzed with the matrix in this paper. In each of the four situations there be strategic choices presented below as suggestions on which McDonalds give notice chair action.Existing Product/Existing Market. In this situation McDonalds can choose to consolidate its current market position by focusing management and initiating marketing activities in the area where it has competitive advantage, which is its powerful formula of change magnitude efficiency and quality. Revenues could be increased by promoting the product or the brand. McDonalds makes substantial investments in advertising and pro motions to improve its brand image, and it is a strong recommendation that this be continued, judging from the revenue figures that are always on top of the industry.This can benefit the corporation in that strong brand keeps loyal customers coming back to the restaurants of the company and provides it maintenance of leadership in penetrated markets. tonic Product/Existing Market. The strain on quality in terms of very detailed operations manuals and tight cultural rules made it very difficult for McDonalds to develop tractability in meeting customers changing needs.This quality trap forced McDonalds to stick narrowly to hamburgers until growing complaints from McDonalds franchisees about the limited product ply forced it to develop new menu items such as the Egg McMuffin, Chicken McNuggets, the McBarbecue, and the salad bar. As can be derived from this experience, McDonalds would do well to beat menus more apposite to local tastes. In this situation, the company has to invest in introducing new products to its existing markets, which will be well-suited for the taste of the local market, for instance, rice burger in Asia where rice is a diet staple. Existing Product/New Market.Here the company has to market its existing product in a new market. This is the outline of market development. Market development can be achieved through identifying potential user groups in the current market areas. McDonalds, in this instance, has adopted a market development strategy through franchising in many parts of the world. The McDonalds franchise is a classical contract of the most elaborate kind. Not barely does it impose extensive requirements on the franchisee, it reads in the McDonalds manual which defines how much beef is to be found in a bun and for how long French fries must be french fried.The result is an extraordinary uniformity in the McDonalds product around the world and from year to year. McDonalds branches can be virtually seen in all parts of the worl d, save for a very few countries, which means that new market opportunities in these unexplored territories are not so many. Thus, it would be best if McDonalds focus on seeking additional distribution channels in the present geographical locations. New Product/New Market. In this situation the company has to pursue diversification strategy.Through a limited menu and a high set of sample operating procedures, it will be able to provide outstanding quality and superior price performance across its whole organization around the globe. The vividness of its existing market, fierce competition from chains offering wider variety with competitive prices like Subway, and changing customer tastes requires McDonalds to increase its product offerings to more than unspoiled burgers, sandwiches and drinks and should have menus emphasizing chicken, salads, and other fresh foods.Purchase of other restaurant or smaller fast-food chains would also help, not only in increasing their market base, b ut also the range of products that they have to offer. They can even expand to more daring ventures, like purchase of a toy manufacturing business for its exclusive toy giveaways included in McDonalds promotional products.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Antonio Lopez

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was born on March 21, 1794 in Jalapa, Vera Cruz and died in 1876, in Mexico City. Santa Anna had started in the selliery in 1810 as a cadet at the age of 16, and was promoted to Brigadier General in 1822. In 1828 Santa Anna became the governor of Vera Cruz. He became governor again in Vera Cruz in the year 1829. Then in 1833 he was elected the president of Mexico. Santa Anna led the Mexican attack on the Alamo in Texas in the year 1835. Santa Anna lastly captured the Alamo. The Texans recorded 257 deaths and the Mexican Army had between 400-600 deaths.Later on his carelessness in the end allowed Sam Houston to win the battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna was able to gain back his consent when the French invaded Vera Cruz in 1838. He was considered a hero after he had some horses shot from underneath him and lost half of his left leg. In 1842 he arranged ceremony to find his foot and parade it in Mexico City and placed it as a monument for everyone to see. Santa Anna fought in the Mexican War and sold land to the join States called the Gadsden Purchase in 1853.In 1854 a young officer named Bonito Juarez banned Santa Anna from Mexico for ten years and Santa Anna later returned before his death. He was impelled out of Mexico for having too much power and control over the country. He later returned to Mexico in 1867. He once again tried to regain much power in 1867. Before he could he was taken prisoner and condemned to the firing squad. Instead he and his family were exiled out of Mexico. He wherefore returned to Mexico in 1874 and then died two years later at the age of 82. Santa Anna was significant to the Spanish world because he believed and fought for his country.He was also important to the Spanish world because he was a dictator of Mexico for many years. He served in the phalanx, was president eleven times of Mexico, and was the governor of Vera Cruz twice. Santa Anna was also important because he was forced to give land to the United States called the Gadsden Purchase. He led the Mexican army to attack the Alamo and was also the leader in that battle. He had defeated many armies and leaders when he was serving in the military. Santa Anna was in the military for most of his life.All these things are important about Santa Anna and are important to the Spanish world. He was very important and no one forget ever forget the famous Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and what he did. I cypher Santa Anna was a pretty brave man because he went through all of those battles for his country, had lost his leg, and was gaol in Sisal, Yucatan. I also think Santa Anna wanted way too much power because he kept trying to take over the military and the country. Also I think he deserved to be banned from the country for ten years because he was trying to get to much power.I think Santa Anna had a pretty unique life because he was president of Mexico, he was governor of Vera Cruz, and was high ranked in the military. I think Santa Anna did some uncanny things because he had set up a ceremony to find his lost leg and had set it up on a monument for everyone to see it and prize it. I think it was nice that his wife wanted to be buried with him before she died because that shows that his wife really cared about him. I have learned many things about Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna as in what he did and how he lived. He was one of the most famous Spanish people and I enjoyed learning about him.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Restructuring the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC): Philippine Prospects for Regional Collective Defense and Stronger Military Relations Essay

Economic development through greater regional cooperation was the primary aim of the Association of selenium Asian Nations (ASEAN) when it was formed on August 8, 1967 by the founding countries of Ind superstarsia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.Although one of the motivations at that time of forming the association was the putting green fear of communist expansion (especially in Vietnam) and insurgency at bottom their respective borders, the ASEAN has not ventured into creating a multitude attachment to promote regional peace and stability. Hence, the ASEAN is form-only(prenominal)ly recognized as an economic formation with no military obligations tying member nations.But with the recent rise of security tensions, primarily ca handlingd by the aggressive actions collide withn by China against the Philippines and co-claimant ASEAN nations over territories located at the South China sea the prospect of creating an ASEAN military adherence to solve the Chi nese security problem, has become very tempting.The researcher believes that indeed, inviolateer military relations between ASEAN nations leave not only help address the security threat posed by China but also go to in resolving the territorial brawls between co-membernations.Thus, this paper proposes a restructuring of the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) such that it give allow the establishment and creation of the following (1) A regional military alliance that volition promote collective denial (2) the ASEAN peacekeeping force and (3) the ASEAN Security Council. The paper also examines the imperative role of the United States and japan in the resolution of the security issues in the region the feasibility of the proposal in the context of the status quo, and the possible problems that allow face the military alliance in one case it is forged.1. INTRODUCTIONDuring the 1970s until the 1990s, security issues began assailing the stability of the Southeast Asian (SE A) region as territorial disputes erupted between fellow ASEAN nations and China. The said disputes were mainly some the disagreement on maritime boundaries and territorial claims made on islands on the South China Sea (or the West Philippine Sea). The situation did not mitigate upon entering the 21st century as the conflicts seemed to worsen. In 2005, Chinese ships allegedly fired upon two Vietnamese fishing boats from Thanh Hoa province which killed 9 people.1If there was something common with all the incidents of skirmishes and standoffs in the much contested area since the 1980s, it was the constant involvement of the Chinese navy. China was dubbed as the rising bully of the South China Sea. With a formid sufficient military strength and an aggressive extraneous policy in dealing with territorial disputes, China was becoming a great security venture to not only the Philippines and the SEA region but to the rest of the world.The stability of the SEA region is a paramount conce rn of Philippine national security, one of the three pillars of Philippine foreign policy.2 Moreover, Philippine defense officials and security experts view Chinese expansionist aspirations in the South China Sea as the main longterm security threat to the Philippines.3 The renewed tensions between the Philippines and China last April 8, 2012 at the Scarborough Shoal has led to speculations of a Philippine-China war and its implications to the Philippine-US mutualdefense treaty. International relations experts though, doubt the commitment of the US to come in the Philippines defense once it is attacked by China as it has not confirmed whether the stretch of the treaty covers contested territories in the South China Sea.41Chinese ships shot to kill Vietnamese fishermen survivor. Vietnam Seaports Association. 17 January 2005. Philippine Foreign insurance policy. The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs. 11 August 2009.3Sokolsky, R., Raba sa A., & Neu, C. R. 2001, p. 334Stirring up the South China Sea (II) regional Responses. Inernational Crisis grouping. 24 July 2012. 2With that in mind, it is apparent so that relying on the US for military assistance in the pointt of a Chinese attack is useless. What the Philippines quest is a military alliance of committed nations who have more or less the same stake in the South China Sea territorial dispute. That being said, the most logical choice would be creating an alliance with our fellow ASEAN claimant nations.2. REGIONAL COLLECTIVE DEFENSE ATTEMPT AND FAILUREThe idea of creating an international organization for collective defense in the SEA region to offset evolution Chinese influence is not new to international politics. In fact it was once tried with the signing of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty or Manila Pact, in Manila, Philippines which created the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).The organization was then formally established on Februa ry 19, 1955 at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand.5 One of the rationales for the creation of SEATO was to counteract communist influence in Southeast Asia, especially that of Communist China, through an anti-communistcollective defense alliance.6The organization though is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military. Also, SEATO was inefficient in promoting regional stability (failing to prevent the escalation of the Vietnam War) as only two SEA nations joined the organization, namely the Philippines and Thailand. Majority of the members were located outside the region. later on a final exercise on 20 February 1976, SEATO was formally dissolved on June 30, 1977.73. RESTRUCTURING THE ASEAN POLITICAL-SECURITY COMMUNITY (APSC) Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, in response to the growing threat of terrorism in the region, called for a collective security system within the ASEAN in 2004. 8 But5Leifer 2005Franklin 2006, p. 17Encyclopaedia Britannica (India) 2000, p. 606under the original ASEAN charter, a multilateral approach on military and security issues is disallowed. Furthermore, the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) in its blueprint has vowed to rely exclusively on peaceful processes in resolving intra-regional and extra-regional differences.Since the status quo hinders any(prenominal) step towards regional collective defense, a major overhaul would be required for the proposal to touch on through.9 This paper proposes a revision on the original ASEAN charter in a way that will allow the transformation of the APSC into an authoritative military body. such transition will be facilitated by the creation of the ASEAN Security Council which will serve as the overseeing organ of the APSC and will assistin the forging of a collective defense alliance and a peacekeeping force under the ASEAN. The fundamental concept of each proposal is discussed briefly belo w. 3.1 ASEAN Security CouncilThe proposed body will serve as the highest authoritative body of the APSC and will be composed by the member states of the ASEAN and represented by a delegate from each nation. Its tasks will include (but will not be limited to) supervision, policy formulation and implementation, and decision-making regarding regional security issues under the APSC. 3.2 ASEAN Collective Defense AllianceThe forging of this alliance must be legitimized under the ASEAN charter through the necessary amendments and should not in any way violate vivacious international laws. Under the proposed framework, either ASEAN nations must pledge to defend each other in the event of an extra-regional attack. In dealing with intra-regional disputes though, collective defense cannot be invoked. Any incidence of intra-regional conflicts will be subject to investigation of the ASEAN Security Council and will be decided on accordingly.89ASEAN and collective security system. The Jakarta Po st. 7 December 2004 See The ASEAN Charter, pp. 23-28 and ASEAN Political-Security Community Blueprint, pp. 8-143.3 ASEAN Peacekeeping ForceDuring times of regional unrest caused by military conflict between member nations, the formation of a peacekeeping force maybe ordered by the ASEAN Security Council. The peacekeeping force will be composed of military personnel contributed by the non-involved states and will serve a specific term or until the conflict is resolved.Duties of the ASEAN peacekeeping force will include protecting civilians, assisting in post-war disarmament, escorting of important diplomats and peace negotiators, demobilization andreintegration of former combatants.4. POLITICAL-SECURITY IMPACT ANALYSISThe evocations of an ASEAN military pact will have a strong bearing on Chinas time to come foreign policy. Perhaps a positive effect (if the recommendation is pursued) will be the taming down of the aggressiveness of China in dealing with the South China Sea issue. With a population of over 600 million people, a steady and growing economy, and tightening diplomatic relations with the U.S. and Japan the military potential of the ASEAN cannot be exclusively overlooked.Both the U.S. and Japan, with their political and economic stakes in Southeast Asia and shared apprehension of the growing Chinese power, are the likes ofly to support a militarily united ASEAN to secure their interests in the region. Furthermore, a militarily integrated ASEAN eases the burden of the U.S. in playing the role of regional balancer and provides both countries with a strong political leverage in dealing with Chinese expansionism in the South China Sea.That being said, it is only logical to count on both technical and moral support from the two extraregional powers should the ASEAN decide to pursue the endeavor. Another possible positive outcome will be the proficient resolution of intra-regional conflicts. Under the proposed APSC framework, existing and future intra-regi onal disputes will be settled through the ASEAN Security Council instead of state-to-state negotiations. A collective defense alliance also serves as deterrence to any thought of aggression towards a comember and strengthens solidarity through a common sense of military identity.But other considerations like the reactions of Chinese allies or even those of neutral observers to the region will also matter. A prejudicious feedback by the international union can have a bad implication to the future of the proposed collective defense organization. Chinas reaction itself is also an important consideration. Although it is more likely that China will become more restrained in dealing with a militarily united ASEAN in the South China Sea, one cannot absolutely ascertain such outcome. An opposite course of what is expected, however unlikely, is unchanging possible.Another point to ponder upon is the role the Philippines will play in the pursuance of an ASEAN military pact. Do we play the regional leader role and take on the initiative? Or become a regional-subsystem collaborator and let another ASEAN nation assume the central role? Whatever it may be, it is a necessity for the Philippines to pick an active role if it is to protect its interest in the matter.5. CONLUSIONEstablishing a collective defense system within the ASEAN will not be an easy job. There will be many obstacles towards the path socio-cultural divisions, lingering tensions over unresolved territorial feuds, and differing levels of threat perceptions dims the prospects of turning the organization into a formal military pact.10 But as highlighted earlier, the pressing need of military cooperation in the light of the Chinese threat can override the said obstacles.The support of extra-regional powers like Japan and the US will be vital to the success of the proposal. The U.S. who is trying to preserve its hegemony and Japan who is currently involved in a territorial dispute with China over the Senkaku i slands, will likely support the advancement of the ASEAN into a collective defense organization considering the political advantage they will be able to reap from it.International feedback will also play a significant role in the success or failure of proposal. The approval (or disapproval) of the international community will greatly affect the progress and future of an ASEAN collective defense system. But what matters most is the 10Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A., & Neu, C. R. 2001, pp. 45-47reaction of China and its allies. A strong negative response from the aforementioned can easily plunge the region into a state of cold war a possible outcome that is extremely strange to the aims of the proposal.(Word count 1679)BilbliographyBooksFranklin, John K. (2006). The Hollow Pact Pacific Security and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-542-91563-5.Leifer, Michael (2005). Chin Kin Wah, Leo Suryadinata. ed. Michael Leifer Selected Works on Southeast Asia. ISBN 978-981-23 0-270-0.Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A. & Neu, C. R. (2001) The office staff of Southeast Asia in U.S. Strategy Toward China. ISBN/EAN 0-8330-2893-6.EncylopediasEncyclopaedia Britannica (India) (2000). Students Britannica India, Volume Five. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.JournalsHolsti, K. J. (1970). National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Sep., 1970), pp. 233-309WebsitesInernational Crisis Group (July 24, 2012). Stirring up the South China Sea(II) Regional Responses. Retrieved February 16, 2013, fromhttp// Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs. Philippine Foreign Policy. 11 August 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http//